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Chapter 15 – Neurological Disorders

Chapter 15 – Neurological Disorders - Chapter 15[1...

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Chapter 15 [1] Chapter 15 – Neurological Disorders Tumors Tumor – mass of cells whose growth is uncontrolled and that serves no useful function Malignant – a cancerous tumor; lacks a distinct border and may metastasize Benign – a noncancerous tumor; has a distinct border and cannot metastasize Metastasis – the process by which cells break off of a tumor, travel through the vascular system, and grow elsewhere in the body Tumor damage occurs by two means: compression and infiltration Tumors arise from other cells found in the brain or from metastates originating elsewhere in the body Glioma – a cancerous brain tumor composed of one of several types of glial cells Tumors are sensitive to radiation and can be destroyed with a beam of radiation focused on them Meningioma – a benign brain tumor composed of the cells that constitute the meninges Seizure Disorders Seizure disorder – the preferred term for epilepsy Seizure – period of sudden, excessive activity of cerebral neurons Convulsion – a violent sequence of uncontrollable muscular movements caused by a seizure Partial seizures – a seizure that begins at a focus and remains localized, not generalizing to the rest of the brain Generalized seizures – a seizure that involves most of the brain, as contrasted with a partial seizure, which remains localized Simple partial seizures – a partial seizure, starting from a focus and remaining localized, that does not produce loss of consciousness Complex partial seizures – a partial seizure, starting from a focus and remaining localized, that produces loss of consciousness Grand mal seizure – a generalized, tonic-clonic seizure, which results in a convulsion Aura – a sensation that precedes a seizure; its exact nature depends on the location of the seizure focus Tonic phase – the first phase of a grand mal seizure, in which all of the patient’s skeletal muscles are contracted Clonic phase – the phase of a grand mal seizure in which the patient shows rhythmic jerking movements Depending on location and extent of seizure, patient may or may not lose consciousness Absence – a type of seizure disorder often seen in children; characterized by period of inattention, which are not subsequently remembered; also called petit mal seizure
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Chapter 15 [2] Status epilepticus – a condition in which a patient undergoes a series of seizures without regaining consciousness Most common cause of seizures is scarring, produced by injury, stroke, or irritating effect of growing tumor Drugs and infections that cause high fevers may cause seizures Common among alcohol or barbiturate addicts who stop taking the drug, sudden release from inhibiting effects of alcohol leaves brain in hyperexcitable condition NMDA receptors may be involved in the seizures caused by alcohol withdrawal Seizure disorders are treated with anticonvulsant drugs, many of which work by
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