{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

The skeletal system

The skeletal system - The Skeletal System Chapter 7...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The Skeletal System – Chapter 7 Introduction Bones and teeth (+keratinized hair) are the most durable remains of a once- living body and the most vivid reminder of life Living skeleton is made of dynamic tissues, full of (living) cells, permeated with nerves and blood vessels Osteology is the study of bone Tissues and Organs of the Skeletal System Skeletal system - Composed of bones, cartilage, and ligaments o Form strong, flexible framework of the body Cartilage —forerunner of most bones o Covers many joint surfaces of mature bone Ligaments —connective tissue that connect bones to bones at the joints o Part of skeletal system Tendons —attach muscle to bone extension of muscle o Don’t originate at bone, originate from muscle o Not part of skeletal system Functions of the Skeleton Support o Bones of limbs and vertebral column support the body o The mandible and maxilla support the teeth o Some viscera supported by nearby bones Protection o Bones enclose and protect the brain, spinal cord, heart, lungs, pelvic viscera, and bone marrow Movement o Limb movements, breathing, and other movements are produced by the action of muscles on the bones Electrolyte Balance o The skeleton stores calcium and phosphate ions Releases them into the tissue fluid and blood according to the body’s physiological needs Acid-base balance o Bone tissue buffers the blood against excessive pH changes By absorbing or releasing alkaline phosphate and carbonate salts Blood formation o Red bone marrow is the major producer of blood cells 1
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Classification of Bones: 1. Flat bones o Paired parietal bones that form the dome of the top of the head o The sternum (breastbone) o Scapula (shoulder blade) o Ribs -24 12 pairs o Hip bones 2. Long bones – most important bones in body movement o The humerus, radius, and ulna of the arm and forearm o The femur, tibia, and fibula of the thigh and leg o The metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalanges (14 in each hand) of the hands and feet o Long bones serve as rigid levers that are acted upon by skeletal muscles to produce the major body movements 3. Short bones o Wrists and ankles have a total of 30 short bones o Carpal (8 in each hand) and tarsal bones o The patella 4. Irregular bones – many bones don’t fit into any of the above categories o Ex. Vertebrae and three tiny middle-ear bones The only bone in the body that does not articulate is the hyoid 2
Image of page 2
Connective Tissue: Cartilage ~20 min Skeletal Cartilage – a connective tissue (3) Types of Cartilage found in Skeletal Tissue 1. Hyaline 2. Elastic 3. Fibrocartilage Avascular (no vasculature to very little) and no nerves ( not innervated ) o Damage cartilage slow to heal Takes longer to heal than bone itself Bone is well perfused (quite a bit of blood vessels) May need surgical intervention to heal properly Ligaments not very vasculature Sometimes it takes ligaments longer (if ever really) heal than if you were to break a bone
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern