Disability Handbook - Disability Handbook Ashley Anderson...

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Disability Handbook Ashley Anderson EECE 320
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Table of Contents ADHD 3 Autism 5 7 9 10 11 Learning Disabilities 12 Mental Retardation 13 Physical & Health Disabilities 14 Severe & Multiple Disabilities 15 16 Traumatic Brain Injuries 18 Visual Impairments 19 2
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ADHD What is ADHD? A psychiatric disorder with symptoms occurring before age seven that includes a pervasive and significant pattern of inattention, impulsivity, and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Characteristics Social It is unclear whether students with ADHD have a definite positive or negative self- esteem. Some researchers have found that it is more common for students to have a more negative self-esteem than typical peers. Students with ADHD often experience challenges in coping with social demands at school, home, and in other settings. For example, they may not realize there are particular ways to act when talking to a teacher versus talking to a friend. Students with ADHD are also more prone than their peers in developing and maintaining friendships. Studies have shown that girls with ADHD have fewer friends than those without ADHD. Academic/Cognitive Since ADHD is not related to cognitive ability, the academic characteristics of students with ADHD can very tremendously. If effective interventions are put in place, most students can be successful in the classroom. There does seem to be a correlation between severity of the symptoms and achievement: the more severe the symptoms, the greater the negative impact on school performance. Students with ADHD have a shortened working memory span, and therefore are more likely to forget instructions given just minutes earlier, that their peers have easily memorized. Self-directed speech, or self-talk, is commonly used to help control emotions and carry out procedures. Behavioral The severity of behavior problems for students with ADHD varies greatly. Students with ADHD may exhibit an array of the following behaviors: failure to closely attend to details, making careless mistakes in schoolwork, failure to complete schoolwork, failure to listen when spoken to directly, difficulty organizing tasks and activities, and an avoidance of, dislike of, or a reluctance to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort. Prevalence ADHD is one of the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorders. Three to five percent of the population has ADHD, and slightly more than 4 percent of adults exhibit characteristics of the disorder. Boys are up to nine times more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD Strategies and Interventions Although it is not universally supported, medication is the most effective intervention for 3
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students with ADHD. Nearly 80 percent of students prescribed medications take stimulants, such as Ritalin or Adderall. Antidepressants and antihypertensives are also common. These include Prozac, Zoloft, Clonidine, and Tenex. The child’s age, parent and child attitudes towards
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2008 for the course SPED 320 taught by Professor Cutler during the Spring '08 term at Minnesota State University Moorhead .

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Disability Handbook - Disability Handbook Ashley Anderson...

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