Chapter 24 (noteswap)

Chapter 24 (noteswap) - Chapter 24: Plant Anatomy and...

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Chapter 24: Plant Anatomy and Nutrient Transport
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Anatomy of Flowering Plants Flowering plants (angiosperms) consist of: Root system All the roots Shoot system Stems bearing leaves, buds , and (in season) flowers and fruits
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Shoot System Root System
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Roots Roots are branched portions of plant body, usually embedded in soil Roots have six major functions: Anchor plant Absorb water and minerals Store surplus sugars Transport H2O, minerals, sugars and hormones Produce hormones Interact with soil fungi and microorganisms
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Shoots Shoots are branched portions of the plant body located above ground Shoots have four major functions: Photosynthesis Transport water, minerals, sugars, and hormones Reproduction Produce hormones
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Monocots and Dicots Angiosperms are divided into two groups (monocots and dicots) based on the structure Monocots have one cotyledon (seed leaf) grasses, lilies, palms, orchids Dicots have two cotyledons (seed leaves) deciduous trees (drop leaves in winter), bushes, many garden flowers
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Flowers Roots Stems Leaves Seeds MONOCOTS DICOTS
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Plant Cells Are Either Meristem Cells or Differentiated Cells Meristem cells are undifferentiated cells; able to divide as long as the plant lives Apical meristems are located at tips of roots and shoots Lateral meristems or cambia (singular, cambium ) run parallel to the long axis of roots and shoots Differentiated cells are mature cells specialized for a specific function
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Meristems Allow Plants to Grow Throughout Their Lives Primary growth occurs by division of apical meristem cells and differentiation of their daughter cells Growth in length of roots and shoots of all plants Secondary growth occurs by division of lateral meristem cells and differentiation of their daughter cells Increase in diameter of roots and shoots of most conifers and dicots
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The Plant Body Is a Hierarchy Plants have tissue systems composed of different tissues Each tissue is comprised of two or more types of specialized cells Tissue and cell types vary in herbaceous and woody plants
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Herbaceous Plants Soft-bodied plants with flexible stems Most are annual (live only one year) Exhibit primary growth lettuce, beans, grasses
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Woody Plants Plants with hard, thickened, woody stems Most are perennial (live many years) Exhibit primary and secondary growth trees, bushes
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Land Plants Consist of Three Tissue Systems Dermal tissue system Ground tissue system Vascular tissue system
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The Dermal Tissue System Covers the outer surface of the plant body Composed of two types of dermal tissue: epidermal, Periderm
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Epidermal Tissue Forms the epidermis (covers leaves, stems, and roots of all young plants) Epidermal cells of leaves and stems secrete a waterproof, waxy cuticle Reduces h20 loss, protects plant from disease microorganisms Some epidermal cells produce fine extensions
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Chapter 24 (noteswap) - Chapter 24: Plant Anatomy and...

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