Nutritional Needs of Dogs-Part I

Nutritional Needs of Dogs-Part I - Puppies, Growing Dogs,...

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Puppies, Growing Dogs, and Mature Dogs
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Background Feeding-management goals begin with establishing good eating habits Feed properly balanced ration for each life stage Feed only what is necessary for growth or maintaining BW Have a regular exercise program for your dog Growth, pregnancy, and lactation require more protein, energy, vitamins and minerals than during adulthood and aging Obesity is biggest problem in dogs in the U.S. Know & observe your dog; Feed to maintain body condition
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Starts off completely dependent on mother for survival Both for food and warmth First need is for energy to stay warm and alive Other major need is for antibodies provided by colostrum Colostrum = first milk, or the milk produced in the first few hours of the puppy’s life Colostrum is rich in protein and fat Contains specialized proteins called immunoglobulins (Ig) Provide immunity against disease and infections that mother has been exposed to
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Immunity Ig are consumed by puppy and absorbed as intact proteins through spaces in intestinal lining Active immunity = transfer of immune protection from the dam to the young through the milk Passive immunity = transfer of antibodies to the developing fetus in the uterus Can only take advantage of this protection for 24-48 hrs Newborn intestine not fully sealed off Intact proteins can pass through the small spaces between cells of intestinal lining without being digested
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Immunity, cont. After several hours, intestinal bacteria start to grow and could infect the animal if entered into the body Intestinal lining matures and closes Enzymes start to be secreted to break down lactose, fat and protein After this time, immunoglobulins remaining in intestine will be broken down into a.a. and absorbed Will not provide any immune protection
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Mother’s Milk After the first 24-36 hrs of lactation, mammary gland starts to make “normal” milk To meet growing demands of puppies No longer colostrum Mother can make all the milk the litter demands As days pass, litter continues to grow and requires even more milk Depending on size of dam and number of pups, nutrient reqts of dam can be 2-3x that needed during pregnancy
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Mother’s Milk, cont. Milk fat supplies majority of energy for puppies Also source of essential F.A., cholesterol and lipids Nearly 80% water Excluding water, milk is…. 34% protein, 35% fat, 31% lactose Milk of other species can be too strong or too weak Cow’s milk has too much lactose, not enough fat or protein
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Milk Replacers Available through vets Growth rates should be 1-2 g/day per lb. of expected adult weight Small dog (10 lbs. adult wt.) = 140 g or ¼ lb. in a week Medium dog (60 lbs.) = 1 1/3 lb. a week Large dog (100 lbs.) = 2 1/3 lb. a week
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Preparing for Weaning At 3-4 weeks, pups are now too big for mother to supply
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course ADS 2223 taught by Professor Huntington during the Spring '08 term at Mississippi State.

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Nutritional Needs of Dogs-Part I - Puppies, Growing Dogs,...

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