Animals in Service to Mankind-Part II

Animals in Service to Mankind-Part II - Introduction...

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Introduction Animals used in scientific experimentation for >2,000 yrs First used them to study body functions Prove that veins carry blood, not air Demonstrate the circulation of blood Effect of anesthesia on the body Relationship between bacteria and disease Of the nearly 100 Nobel Prizes awarded in Medicine & Physiology during 20 th century, more than 2/3 involved the use of animals
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Discoveries Insulin – removal of dog pancreas Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of: Heart disease, Poliomyelitis Measles, Smallpox Massive burns Open heart surgery Blood transfusions Organ transplants Laser surgery Determining safety and efficacy of new drugs, vaccines
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Nutritional Considerations Ex: Digestive glands – Ivan Pavlov Extensive use of fistulas rather than vivisection Food stimuli at a distance from the animal Paired unconditioned stimulus – salivation at sight of food – with a neutral stimulus – sound of bell Rejected “psychic” salivary secretion theory and concluded a conditioned reflex was involved
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Nutritional Considerations, cont. Joseph Goldberger Relationship between blank tongue in dogs to pellagra Lack of niacin (B3) and tryptophan Schaumann Value of heating foods G. R. Cowgill Role of vitamin B6 in nutrition of dogs E. Mellanby Canine rickets and osteomalacia
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Animal Models for Human Research Why? Allows increased control over genetics Increased control over environment Improved protocol compliance Availability of invasive techniques During 20 th century, rats, mice, birds and fish were ~90% of the animals used in biomedical research Represent unregulated species in U.S. Prior to this, early research dogs primarily on dogs
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Animal Models for Human Research, cont. Is the use of companion animals increasing or decreasing? Decreasing!* First report 1973, 1.6 million animals used In 2006, 1.0 million animals used Rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, primates, dogs, cats, farm animals Unregulated animals are not reported, but their numbers are also thought to have decreased significantly *USDA –APHIS Animal Welfare Report
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Preferred Animal Models Dogs used to study human nutrition for nearly 2 centuries Canine colons are proportionate in length to human colons Dogs & humans have colonic bacteria that contribute significantly to colonic fermentation Bacteroides, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli Similar dietary habits Dogs evolved from carnivores to omnivores Generally require same essential nutrients as humans Exception: vitamin C, which dogs can synthesize
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Preferred Animal Model, cont. Cats are less desirable research model for human nutrition
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Animals in Service to Mankind-Part II - Introduction...

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