GerowPPCH05 - General Psychology Chapter 5 Learning What is...

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General Psychology Chapter 5 Learning
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What is Learning? Demonstrated by a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of practice or experience Learning cannot be observed directly Only overt behavior can be measured Learned changes are neither fleeting nor cyclical Learned changes are due to experience, not maturation or adaptation
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Not technically synonymous, but most basic types of learning will be called conditioning in this text Organisms can learn maladaptive habits as easily as positive, adaptive ones
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Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov – Russian psychologist, won a Nobel Prize in 1904 for his study of the processes of digestion Salivation reflex in dogs Present food powder, dogs reflexively salivate Dogs began salivating before food powder put in their mouths, either at sight of food, or person delivering food This is called classical conditioning
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Classical Conditioning, Cont’d. 1. Unconditioned Stimulus UCS : stimulus that can already elicit a response 2. Unconditioned Response UCR : response that is already elicited by a stimulus 3. Conditioning Stimulus CS : a new stimulus we deliver at the same time we give the old stimulus 4. Conditioned Response CR : response to the conditioned stimulus
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Basics of Classical Conditioning Food Powder (UCS) Salivate (UCR) Add a neutral stimulus (like a bell tone) that produces minimal response Orientating reflex – simple unlearned response of attending to a new or unusual stimulus Habituation organism comes to ignore a stimulus of little or no consequence When dog learns not to orient (i.e., habituates), study begins UCS (Food) + CS (Bell) Salivate (CR) CS (Bell) Salivate (CR)
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Basics of Classical Conditioning Conditioned ” – the learned component of classical conditioning Unconditioned ”– no learning involved CR and UCR NOT identical CR usually weaker than UCR, regardless of number of pairings
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Processes & Phenomena of Classical Conditioning Acquisition – stage during which CS and USC are paired, and strength of CR increases Extinction – strength of CR decreases with repeated presentations of CS without UCS Generalization – CR elicited by stimuli different from, but similar to, CS
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Processes & Phenomena of Classical Conditioning Discrimination – an organism learns to make a response only to one CS, but not to other CSs Spontaneous Recovery – after extinction and rest interval If CS is then paired with UCS, the strength of CR increases (relearning) If CS presented without UCS, the strength of CR diminishes, as it did during extinction
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Figure 5.1: The stages of conditioning.
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Figure 5.2: The generalization gradient.
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Significance of Classical Conditioning The Little Albert experiment was an experiment showing classical conditioning, conducted by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner at Johns Hopkins University.
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSY 2012 taught by Professor Jenkins during the Fall '07 term at Seminole CC.

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GerowPPCH05 - General Psychology Chapter 5 Learning What is...

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