Study Guide #1

Study Guide #1 - Study Guide#1(F05 What steps are involved...

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GEOL 125: Earth History Study Guide #1 (F05) What steps are involved in the scientific method? 1. Observation 2. Generalization 3. Tests 4. Revision What is a scientific law? When can you violate a law? State Newton's laws. What factors are involved in the law of gravity? State these by writing an equation. Scientific law is a hypothesis that has been extensively tested. A scientific law can be violated when The uncertainty principle: states the product of uncertainty in energy and the time is equal to a very small number, An equivalent statement is that we cannot know both the position and momentum of a particle at any given point better than this small #. (i.e. we can never predict the locations of the electrons around the nucleus; we can only estimate the probabilities of finding the electrons at certain locations. Newton’s Laws: 1. A moving object will stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside force 2. F=MA (Force=Mass*Acceleration) 3. For every action, there is an equal or opposite reaction Law of Gravity: = ( ) Force Gm1 m2 r2 *where m=mass of object, r=separation, g=constant *as r gets smaller we want f (the force) to get bigger. What are the four fundamental forces? What types of particles experience each of these forces? How do we think these forces are transmitted? Over what range is each effective? What forces are apparent within the nucleus of an atom, and which are most important? Four fundamental forces: 1. Gravitational: depends on mass and distance a. Range: infinite Particle: gravitation 2. Electromagnetic: depends on charge and distance a. Bigger charge on object 1 bigger EM force b. Range: infinite Particle: photon 3. Strong force: between hadrons (holds nucleus together) a. Range: - 10 13 cmParticle: gluon 4. Weak force: between leptons and hadrons
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a. Range: - 10 15 cmParticle: weak gauge bosons These forces are transmitted by an exchange of particles The EM force is exerted by particles within the nucleus of an atom Gravity is an essential force because it holds our planet and solar system together (MOST IMPORTANT!) What different forms of energy exist? Give examples. In addition to energy, are there other fundamental properties that must be conserved in any interaction? Give examples. Energy: **Key Law: Energy is conserved! 1. Kinetic: tied up in the form of directed motion (i.e. falling object E=M V2 ) 2. Potential: related to position in a force field (i.e. height of an object above earth) 3. Heat: can be transferred from one object to another; results in a change of temperature (i.e. water heats up and boils at 100˚C) 4. Chemical: energy stored or released in creation or destruction of chemical bonds (i.e. burning off coal (carbon) in the air (oxygen) forms carbon dioxide and heat is released.) 5. Mass: E=M C2 (i.e. hydrogen nucleus combines with helium nucleus and mass of product is less than mass of starting materials. Mass difference appears as heat energy) 6. EM Radiation: photons (sunlight) are packets of oscillating EM fields that carry
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2008 for the course GEOL 125Lxg taught by Professor Hammond during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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Study Guide #1 - Study Guide#1(F05 What steps are involved...

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