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FORMAL LAB - Determining Your Own Blood Type Using a...

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Determining Your Own Blood Type Using a Serological Test and Determining Your Rh factor by Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction Formal Lab Chelsea Aragon November 13, 2007 Biology Lab 110 B Talmadge Farringer, Marybeth Kasda, and Chris Wodiska 1
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Introduction: The objective of this lab is to determine your blood type, examining a use of techniques in DNA isolation, learn the principles behind the polymerase chain reaction and compare two types of useful and practical techniques of screening tests to determine your Rh factor. There are four different blood types and two different Rh factors. The four blood types are A, B, AB, and O. The Rh factor determines whether or not your blood type is positive of negative. “Blood cells display antigens which are proteins on the surface of a cell that can be recognized by an antibody. For example Anti-A is the antibody to the A antigen and the same thing for Anti-B. The Anti-Rh negative is the antibody to the positive Rh antigen. Blood type A displays the A antigen and the same thing for blood type B and the blood type AB displays both the A antigen and B antigen. Blood type O displays nothing; it does not display the A or B antigens. The Rh factor is separate from the A, B, and O and can appear with it or without it. Rh positive displays the Rh antigen and Rh negative does not display the Rh antigen.” (Lab Lecture Staiger) In this particular lab we are asked to learn the principle behind the polymerase chain reaction. The polymerase chain reaction is a technique used to amplify or copy a segment of DNA. In order to perform the polymerase chain reaction you must have three things. Those three things are a DNA sample, two primers, and of course the polymerase. The primers recognize the gene of interest. For example for the Rh factor which we are trying to determine in this particular lab you need the D gene and CcEe gene. Polymerase is an enzyme that can copy and replicate DNA. In this lab we used a polymerase that was heat stable in order to under go the electrophoresis. “There are four steps to the 2
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polymerase chain reaction. The first step is to denature or melt the DNA. The second step is the primers anneal to the DNA. The third step is the polymerase used binds to the DNA and begins to copy the DNA. The process repeats again and the result is many, many copies of the target gene are made.” (Lab Lecture Staiger) In this lab we are testing our blood type and determining whether are Rh factor is negative or positive. To test our blood type we planed to use a serological test. To test our Rh factor we extracted cheek cells from our mouths to use in the polymerase chain reaction to determine which gene codes for the Rh factor were present in out DNA. We
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