Study Guide #2

Study Guide #2 - GEOL 125: Earth History Study Guide #2...

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GEOL 125: Earth History Study Guide #2 (F05)
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Write the following numbers in scientific notation: 500; 623,000; 0.003; 421. 500 = 5 x 102 623,000 = 6.23 x 103 .003 = 3 x - 10 2 421 = 4.21 x 100 What is the log of each of the following numbers: 10000; 100; 1; 0.001? See Chapter 4 (Section A) or see me if you have trouble with these. (log 10000) = 4 (log 100) = 2 (log .001) = -2 Sketch a picture of an atom. What particles are located in the nucleus? What force holds the nucleus together, and what force is at work to try to break it apart? What force attracts the electrons to the atom? The protons and neutrons are in the nucleus. The electric charges of the protons (positive charge) and electrons (negative charge) attract to hold the nucleus together, while the electrical repulsion of the protons try to pull them apart. The electromagnetic force holds the nucleus together as well and attracts electrons to the atom. If an electron in an atom moves from one shell to another, what happens? Why? What would we observe? Why do different elements emit light of different colors when heated in a flame? Is this light of a discrete or widely varying wavelength? Why? When an electron moves from one shell to another, emission or absorption of a quantum of energy, in the form of a photon is exerted because the electrons are getting excited and jumping to different shells. These electrons then go back to ground state which causes different energies to be emitted. From this, we would observe different color lights being emitted depending on the emission or absorption lights. Different elements emit different light colors when heated in a flame because each element is made of different atoms. Different atoms need different amounts of energy to get them to the excited state, and so they release different amounts of energy going back to the ground state: an atom that needs lots of energy put in to excite it will release lots of energy when it cools down. When the energy is emitted as light, a different energy corresponds to a different color.
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The different colored lights vary greatly in wavelength. The color spectrum is wide as is the wavelength spectrum. (i.e. the red colored light produces low energy wavelengths while the blue/ violet colored light produces higher energy and higher frequency wave lengths.) This is due in part to how much energy is being emitted which changes the frequency of the wavelength. How can we determine the composition of stars? Of planets? What are the densities of the inner and outer planets? Why do they differ? We can determine the composition of stars by looking at spectroscopy’s (emission and absorption lines) and looking at the density of them (for sun) To determine the composition of planets we look at their mass densities and take direct samples of them.
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Study Guide #2 - GEOL 125: Earth History Study Guide #2...

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