Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: Major Classes of Chemical Reactions...

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Chapter 4: Major Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture Outline ± Water as a solvent ² Electrolytes ± The pH Scale ( Ch. 18.2 ) ± Oxidation-Reduction Reactions ² Polar nature of water ± Precipitation Reactions ² Predicting the products ² Terminology ² Complex redox reactions ² Oxidation numbers ² Net ionic equations ± Acid-Base Reactions ² Strong and weak acids and bases ± Titrations ² Three reaction subclasses ± Reading: Sections 4.1-4.5 (4.6 and 4.7 are skipped); PLUS 18.2 ± Homework Problems: ² Chapter 4: 6(5), 18(19a,b), 29(30), 31(32), 33(34), 35(36), 45(46), 49(50), 60(61), 66(67), 68(69), 70(71), 74(75), 76(77). ² Chapter 18: 23, 25, 27, 29 Slide No. 1 CHEM 1035 Fall 2007 Silberberg Chapter 4 ± ChemSkill Builder: Units 5.1-5.3; 6.3-6.5; 10.1-10.3 ² Due Monday, September 24 th . (Scores downloaded September 25 th ). Aqueous Reactions any important reactions take place in water ± Many important reactions take place in water. ² biological reactions ² most of our planet covered by water: oceans, rivers, streams ² water = solvent ; dissolved substances = solute . Cl (aq) + NaOH (aq) aCl (aq) + H ( l) HCl (aq) Æ NaCl (aq) 2 O (l) ± Three classes of typical aqueous reactions ² ___________________________ ² ___________________________ Slide No. 2 CHEM 1035 Fall 2007 Silberberg Chapter 4 ² ___________________________ 4.1 Electrolytes y dissolving certain substances water can be made to ± By dissolving certain substances, water can be made to conduct electricity. ² Pure Water ² NaCl (aq) ² Table Sugar (sucrose, C 12 H 22 O 11 ) (aq) ² HCl ² HCH 3 CO 2 (l) ² HCH 3 CO 2 (aq) ± Why do aqueous solutions of some compounds conduct an electric current but others do not? ² Some compounds ________________ in solution Slide No. 3 CHEM 1035 Fall 2007 Silberberg Chapter 4 ² In solution, electrical current is conducted by _______________ Electrolytes Slide No. 4 CHEM 1035 Fall 2007 Silberberg Chapter 4 No Ions = No Current Ions are not mobile Mobile ions
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Covalent Compounds in Aqueous Solution CH 3 OH (methanol) C H H H O H ± Molecules held together by bonds _____________________ gy __________________ ² Shared _____________ hold atoms together ± In pure substances, additional weak forces bind molecules forces including ² _______________ forces including _______________________ ² Weaker but numerous ___________________ forces ± Covalent bonds are ___________________ by dissolving in a solvent Slide No. 5 CHEM 1035 Fall 2007 Silberberg Chapter 4 ± Molecules – but not atoms – are separated upon dissolving Ionic Compounds in Aqueous Solution K 2 SO 4 (potassium sulfate) + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - - ± Solid held together by ________________ + + ² Mutual attraction of ___________________ ± Upon dissolving, ________ separate ² Held apart by solvent ________ py ² Solvent surrounds ions (see Slide 9) ± _________________ ions remain intact ulfate ( O anions are held together by bonds ________________ Slide No. 6 CHEM 1035 Fall 2007 Silberberg Chapter 4 ² Sulfate (SO 4 2 ) anions are held together by ______________ bonds Acids in Aqueous Solution HCl (hydrochloric acid) H Cl - - - - - - Completely ionized - Partially ionized ± In a pure substance, acids are held together by ___________ bonds lt HCl: _______ ELECTROLYTE HF: ______ ELECTROLYTE ² __________ electrons ± Upon dissolving in water, molecules dissociate into _______ ² Held apart by solvent ² Solvent surrounds _________ (see Slide 9) ± ______________ ions remain intact ² NO HClO Slide No. 7 CHEM 1035 Fall 2007 Silberberg Chapter 4 HNO 3 , HClO 4 ± "Weak" acids (e.g., HF, HC 2 H 3 O 2 , HCN) dissociate ____________ The Polar Nature of Water eg neg H H H H O ±
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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: Major Classes of Chemical Reactions...

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