Comm 200 Study Guide Midterm 2 - Comm 200 Study Guide...

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Comm 200 Study Guide Midterm 2: Chapter 4: Trait Approaches: 1. Three steps of the Classical Conditioning Model (Pavlov): Goal is to see how an effect that was produced by an original stimulus can be produced by a new stimulus. 1. Give a neutral stimulus 2. combine neutral stimulus with unconditional stimulus-- unconditioned response. 3. Condtioned stimulus created-- results in conditioned response pavlov example of above: 1. smell meat powder, measure saliva while in harness 2. ring bell and smell meat powder 3. simply ring bell, measure saliva 2. Operant Conditioning Model (Skinner)-- difference between Classical and Operant models? 1. Goal is to see how effect can be increased or decreased by reward or punishment 2. no concern with stimulus that produced the effects, unlike classical model 3. reward: increases response 4. punishment: decreases response 3. Define trait and state; what is the cross situational consistency issue? What are the three theoretic positions on the cross-situational consistency issue? 1. Traits and states are opposing ways of explaining communicators behavior: 1. traits: should be exhibited in general if one looks at a person's behavior across a wide range of situations 2. states: behavior varies from situation to situation within the same context 1. in support: consistency of a persons behavior is low across situations: .30
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possible positions to take: -situationist (situation determines behavior) -trait theorist (traits determine behavior) -interactionist (traits/situation interact and this determines behavior)-- no theories 4. What is communication apprehension: is it a state or a trait? Effects of CA? How is CA treated? 1. Communication Apprehension is a trait 2. There are 4 types: 1. traitlike CA: stable degree of anxiety across communication contexts 2. context CA: communication varies across contexts 3. audience CA: fear when communicating with certain people 4. situational CA: degree of fear experienced in talking with people in given situation. -can be caused by: low self-esteem, parental reinforcement, or inherited trait -to change CA, you need to change your mind about communication. -cognitive restructuring and communication skills training 5. What is a conversational narcissist? What are his/her behaviors?
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