Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide - Final Exam Study Guide: Biological...

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1Final Exam Study Guide: Biological Anthropology 1. Three conditions needed for evolution to occur according to Charles Darwin (Postulate) A. The ability of a population to expand is infinite, but the ability for an environment to support that population is finite. B. Organisms within a population vary. This variation affects the survival and reproduction of individuals. C. The variation that affects survival and reproduction are transmitted from parent to offspring 2. Three Types of Natural Selection A. Directional Selection: when the average of natural selection is affected B. Stabilization Selection: when natural selection is maintaining the status quo to reach an equilibrium C. Disruptive Selection: when an optimal trait is no longer optimal and shifts the curve. Natural selection is working against it. 3. Darwin’s Finch Example A. 13 species all vary in size and beak, after drought only finches with bigger beaks survive 4. Mendel’s Postulates/Laws A. Inheritance is particulate: genes are inherited one from each parent B. Independent Segregation: when the egg and sperm are formed the genes enter at random 5. Polygenic vs. Pleiotrophy A. Polygenic traits are multiple genes with one effect B. Pleiotrophy is a single gene with multiple effects 6. Heritability A. The proportion of total phenotypic variability observed for a given trait that can be ascribed as two genetic factors (given certain traits, it is the likelihood that a certain trait will be passed on) 7. Balanced Polymorphism and Heterozygous Advantage ** A. Balanced Polymorphism: two or more distinct phenotypes that exist within a population B. Heterozygous Advantage: people with two different alleles have more advantages vs. disadvantages. 8. 5 Constraints on Adaptation A. Small Population: genetic drift –> random changes in trait frequencies through sampling variation B. Physics and Chemistry: (developmental constraints) i.e. if both men and women could feed a baby while it would be helpful, it’s not very practical C. Equilibrium not reached: the optimal trait is no longer optimal (most common trait) D. Correlated Characters: the best adaptations cannot come together because they cannot be linked E. Inferior Local Optimum: local population reaches an equilibrium that is not optimal; natural selection works with what it has, it doesn’t all happen at once 9. Species Concepts A. Biological Species Concept: a group of interbreeding organisms that are reproductively isolated from other groups B. Ecological Species Concept: a species is a group of organisms exploiting a single niche (i.e. a horse and a donkey mate = a mule (96% of them are sterile) natural selection stops them from reproducing) C. Recognition Species Concept: ability for individuals to identify members of their own species for mating purposes (i.e birds doing their mating dance) 10. Speciation
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A. Allopatric Speciation: a physical barrier interrupts gene flow; a sub-population then diverges under natural selection (geographic separation) (most common in the wild)
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Final Exam Study Guide - Final Exam Study Guide: Biological...

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