CHM 312 Week 1 intro and classical treatment UPDATED

# CHM 312 Week 1 intro and classical treatment UPDATED - CHM...

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CHM 312 Quantum Mechanics Week 1 Introduction and the Dawn of Quantum Theory

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What is Quantum Mechanics? The use of wave mechanics to study the quantized nature of extremely small particles. Classically, things with large masses appear to act in a continuous manner. i.e ., large objects appear to travel in continuous trajectories (throwing a ball) or exist in an infinite array of continuous states (cooling of coffee). Thinking about a transition between continuous states or a trajectory, the variable of interest (position, v, p, E ) can be measured in an infinitesimally small way. (we can measure in m, mm, um, nm, pm…etc). Classically one solves for classical variables using Newton’s equations (e.g. F = ma ). These set of equations provide for continuous trajectories of a particle’s motion and is deterministic in nature. ( i.e . I always know exactly where the particle is and its energy given a set of initial conditions). When objects become small (limited mass) they begin to exhibit discrete states. i.e ., small objects (nuclei/electrons) can only exist in discrete energetic states. This is with regards to electronic, rotational, vibrational, and translational states. The measurements and/or variables (e.g., p and E ) on this scale are not continuous and are separated by discrete amounts between each measurable quantity. QM one solves for variables/observables using the Schrödinger Equation (). Wave functions () are used to tell us the probability of where a particle will be in any point in time and space. (probabilistic in nature). Classical mechanics is intuitive in that we understand how large objects move. QM is unintuitive in that we must treat our small particles from a probabilistic standpoint.
Oscillating Dipole and EMR Each Point charge produces and e-field. When oppositely charged they form a dipole. When dipole oscillates it causes sinusoidal fluctuations in the e-field around the dipole. Over time the e-field fluctuation propagates through space. Since light is just and oscillating e-field traveling through space, if oscillation of the electron around a nucleus are at the proper frequency it will emit photos of visible light.

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Blackbody Radiation A “blackbody” is an idealized object that absorbs and emits all frequencies of light. Emitted radiation from the body is called blackbody radiation Here if a blackbody is heated it emits given frequencies of light, where the frequency with maximum intensity of the light increases with increasing temperature. Think of an electric stove burner heating up (dull red bright red orange yellow orange). I
Another Type of Blackbody A blackbody is also a perfectly emitting structure with a pinhole opening held at constant T .

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