TFLAB1_FlowLoop - Lab #1: Measures of Hydraulic Flow &...

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Lab #1: Measures of Hydraulic Flow & Pressure MANE–4020 Thermals and Fluids Laboratory February 19, 2008 Authors: Creighton Adsit Mike Beanland Carl Hansen Joe Larsen
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MANE 4020: Thermal and Fluids Lab, Spring 2008 2 Table of contents Section Page Number Variable Naming Reference 2 1. Abstract 3 2. Introduction 3 3. Procedure 3–4 4. Apparatus 4–6 5. Results 6–14 6. Conclusion 14 7. References 14 Appendix A: Sample Calculations 14 Appendix B: Error Analysis 15 Appendix C: Pipe Specifications 15 Appendix D: Orifice Plate Data 16 Appendix E: Piping Section Data 16–18 Variable Naming Reference Symbol Concept Units Note Q actual Volumetric Flow Rate m 3 /sec m Mass Flow Rate kg/sec C 0 Orifice Plate Discharge Coefficient none typically 0.61-0.62 A 0 Cross sectional Area m 2 P 1 Upstream Pressure Measurement Pa or kPa P 2 Downstream Pressure Measurement Pa or kPa β Diameter Ratio none β = d/D ρ Density of Water kg/m 3 μ Dynamic Viscosity of Water kg*m/sec h L Head Loss m g Gravitational Acceleration m/sec 2 9.81 m/sec 2 ƒ Friction factor within pipe none L Pipe Length m D Diameter of Pipe m d Diameter of orifice plate’s hole m V Flow Velocity m/sec Re Reynolds number none ( ) µ ρ = VD Re
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MANE 4020: Thermal and Fluids Lab, Spring 2008 3 1. Abstract: The objective of this experiment is twofold. First a sharp-edged orifice flow meter was to be calibrated in order to experimentally determine the value for the discharge coefficient. Secondly, friction factors were to be calculated for several long sections of tubing using pressure drops and mass flow measurements. The value for discharge coefficient was right in line with anticipated values, but experimental values for friction factor were significantly different from values predicted by the Colebrook equation due to experimental errors. 2. Introduction: The importance of fluid flow (liquid or gas) in pipes is evident everywhere. Plumbing, oil pipelines, heating and cooling ducts, and even blood in our veins are some common examples. In this experiment we are observing the effects of fluid properties as a function of Reynolds number and comparing our observed data to calculated correlations. To make these observations we performed two experiments. The first experiment was conducted in order to calibrate a common flow measurement device called an orifice flow meter. This device consists of a sheet of metal with a small hole in the center that is placed securely in-between two piping sections. Fluid flowing through this section of piping undergoes a change in pressure that is proportional to its mass flow rate. Thus, the procedure explained in the following pages was used to calibrate the meter to read in units of mass flow. Water at a measured mass flow rate was forced through the orifice flow meter and the pressure drop across the orifice was measured to develop an empirical model. In the second experiment the pressure drop due primarily to friction was observed across each of
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This lab report was uploaded on 04/22/2008 for the course MANE 4020 taught by Professor Mcdougal during the Spring '08 term at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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TFLAB1_FlowLoop - Lab #1: Measures of Hydraulic Flow &...

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