Thermodynamics (1) - Thermodynamics Second Law Law of...

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Thermodynamics ……… Second Law- Law of Entropy . Entropy (S)- measure of degree of randomness or disorder of a system . Enthalpy (H)- measure of the change in heat for a system under constant pressure H+E+PV . System -matter within a defined region - May be open, closed, isolated . (ChangeS system+ change… Free Energy Function. . Josiah Willard Gibbs (1878) . Combines the 1 st (deltaE) and the 2 nd (deltaS) Laws of Thermodynamics . Delta G-Gibb’s Free Energy Delta G= DeltaH-TdeltaS at contant T and P . DeltaH+ DeltaE+ PdeltaV, but P is considered constant and deltaV small . deltaG= Delta E- TdeltaS . DeltaG^0= free energy under standard condition . DeltaG++= free energy of activation . Relationship between deltaG and Keq -Where Keq is the ratio of the concentration of products to reactants at equilibrium For a given reaction A+B C +D DeltaG=DeltaG^0+RTlog CD/A B At equilibrium, deltaG=0 Conditions: 37degree Celsius, 1M, P constant Reactions are exergonic If it is at zero, reaction is at equilibrium DeltaG is spontaneous when it is positive Reaction can occur even if deltaG is positive.
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