CST8174_Lecture_18_Introduction_to_the _CPU

CST8174_Lecture_18_Introduction_to_the _CPU - Algonquin...

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Tuesday, May 12, 2009 4 - 1 Algonquin College CST8174 CST8174 Computer Technology Basics Microprocessor
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Tuesday, May 12, 2009 4 - 2 Algonquin College CST8174 Microprocessor Central Processing Unit (CPU) Can perform millions of mathematical operations per second Responsible for most of the data processing performed by the computer Often referred to as the brains of the computer
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Tuesday, May 12, 2009 4 - 3 Algonquin College CST8174
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Tuesday, May 12, 2009 4 - 4 Algonquin College CST8174 Microprocessor Clock The clock speed or clock rate is the speed at which the microprocessor executes instructions It is the maximum speed, not the speed at which it always runs This internal clock is used to regulate the rate at which instructions are executed and to synchronize all the various computer components The CPU requires a fixed number of clock cycles to execute each instruction Every instruction requires at least two clock cycles
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Tuesday, May 12, 2009 4 - 5 Algonquin College CST8174 Microprocessor Front Side Bus or FSB Communication device between the CPU and the device such as RAM, Expansion Slots, HD Communication is bi-directional Back Side Bus Connects the CPU to the L2 and L3 Cache Faster than the FSB
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Tuesday, May 12, 2009 4 - 6 Algonquin College CST8174 Simple CPU – The Z80 Control Unit Registers Arithmetic  Logic Unit Bus  Interfaces
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Tuesday, May 12, 2009 4 - 7 Algonquin College CST8174 CPU Components Z-80 Execution (Control) Unit Decodes instructions Makes logical decisions Arithmetic Logic Unit Performs integral calculations Performs comparisons Registers Temporary storage spaces Known as general purpose registers: AX, BX, CX, DX NOT memory addresses Used for data manipulation by the CPU Bus Interfaces Physical connections between CPU and three-bus architecture
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Tuesday, May 12, 2009 4 - 8 Algonquin College CST8174 CPU Components Non Z-80 Floating Point Unit Specialized ALU for complex mathematical equations Optimized for non-integer calculations Primary Cache Also referred to as L1 cache Very fast memory, resident in CPU Allows near-instantaneous data storage and retrieval Branch Predictor Essential for pipelined architecture Allows CPU to make an educated guess as to where and when the program will branch to a new address
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Tuesday, May 12, 2009 4 - 9 Algonquin College CST8174 Microprocessor Three-Bus architecture Allows the CPU to specific type, size and location of data transfer Control bus Identifies whether the CPU is reading or writing data Address bus Identifies the location of where the data is being read/written Data bus Actual information being sent/received by the CPU
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Tuesday, May 12, 2009 4 - 10 Algonquin College CST8174 Processor The CPU see the world different from you and me…
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Tuesday, May 12, 2009 4 - 11 Algonquin College CST8174 Microprocessor What we see …
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Tuesday, May 12, 2009 4 - 12 Algonquin College CST8174 Microprocessor What the CPU sees
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CST8174_Lecture_18_Introduction_to_the _CPU - Algonquin...

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