Hatshepsut Historical context: 1. Historical overview of early 18th Dynasty ● The interest in her has naturally focused on the fact that she was a woman in a man’s world, a woman who broke with tradition by establishing herself as a pharaoh. ● She also came to power at a time when Egypt was on the threshold of perhaps its greatest achievements in both internal and foreign affairs. ● The kingship were bound to the sate cult of Amun-Re ● In foreign affairs, Hatshepsut inherited the control of Nubia and the exploitation of its rich resources. In particular, its gold played an important role in Egypt’s economic development. ● Thutmose I was another important influence on her reign. She was mindful of the legacy she inherited from her predecessors, but she was also an innovator who set her own stamp on New Kingdom Egypt, especially in developing ideology of kingship and the theology of the state cult of Amun-Re ● Another source of inspiration came from her female forebears – Tetisheri, Ahhotep and Ahmose-Nefertari. These women had played an important role in the foundation and development of the early New Kingdom, often acting as regents in the troubled times of war. ● Women in Egyptian society derived their social status from the men to whom they belonged. Roles of royal women: ● Queen consort – any of the wives of the reigning king ● Regent – great royal wife and widow of a king, who managed the affairs of state for a new, young king until he was old enough to rule. ● Co-regent – ruled as a king in partnership with another pharaoh. 2. Overview of social, political, economic structures of early New Kingdom Social: ● rigidly structured social hierarchy ● classes were well defined and social mobility was fairly limited but possible ● top of social hierarchy was the pharaoh ● then were the nobles and high government officials such as the vizier and army commanders ● the lower class included labourers, herders, fisherman and foot soldiers ● Nobility – royal family, viziers, high priests, king’s harem, harem officials ● Working classes – skilled – artists, scribes, craftsmen, sculptors, carpenters, jewellers ● Unskilled – farmers, labourers, fisherman, herders, slaves Political: ● main goal of the king was to provide security for the people by ensuring good relations with the gods and the maintenance of general prosperity and stability (ma'at) ● Royal Household – Chancellor, Chief Steward, Chamberlain ● State administration – vizier, overseer of the treasury, overseer of the granary, overseer of the king’s building works ● Imperial administration – viceroy of Nubia, Vassal kings, King’s deputies ● Exact rules for Egyptian succession are not known Military: ● involved in the consolidation of the empire - this is included by the exploits of Ahmose, Thutmose I and Thutmose III ● Nobility – commander in chief, chief deputies of the north and south, generals, scribe of infantry Economic: ● Agriculture was the main sector ● the expansion and consolidation of the empire also helped added to state revenues in the way of booty and imperial trade
3. Relationships of the king with Amun
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- Hatshepsut, Ahmose I, Thutmose I, Thutmose, Deir el-Bahri