Hatshepsut Notes Historical Context Geography, topography and resources of Egypt and its neighbours Geography and Topography Situated by the Nile River o 7000km in length o Formed from 3 rivers – White Nile, Blue Nile and the Atbara o Flows North towards Mediterranean Sea o Broken up in 6 places by impenetrable rocky outcrops and rapids (cataracts) Herodotus describes Egypt as ‘the gift’ of the Nile >> without the Nile River, ancient Egyptians could not have survived The Nile: o Deposited rich layer of black soil, enabling agriculture to flourish o Provided essential natural resources eg mud for building, papyrus for making paper, boats and baskets o Transportation and communication o Influenced development of particular religious beliefs and social attitudes o Led to growth of large admin bureaucracy responsible for controlling land and water use o Determined season of the year, regulated activities of people Egypt was divided into two distinct environments: The Black Land: narrow river valley (Upper Egypt) and the fertile Delta marshlands (Lower Egypt) The Red Land: comprising of desert plateaux and cliffs bordering the river valley Upper Egypt (Ta-Shema) Lower Egypt (Ta-Mehu) Dry and hot with year-round sunshine Mild and moist Isolated by deserts on both sides Close contact with Mediterranean culture Limited agricultural land Lust, fertile land and grazing pastures Abundant in minerals, building materials and semi-precious stones Rich in papyrus reeds, lotus plants and wildlife Resources of Egypt and its neighbours Generally self sufficient Resources unable to be locally obtained were obtained through trade or tribute Resource Example Crops/Vegetables Barley, emmer, onions, lettuce Fruits Grapes, figs Oils Olive, linseed
Hatshepsut Notes Domesticated animals Sheep, goat, cattle Fish Carp, tilapia Building materials Mud brick, limestone, sandstone Metals Copper, gold Neighbour Resource Lebanon Cedar Nubia Gold, ivory, baboons, ostrich feathers, ebony Sinai Copper, turquoise, malachite Palestine Cedar, silver Punt Incense, resin, ebony Historical Overview of the early Eighteenth Dynasty The early Eighteenth Dynasty lasted for about 170 years and was characterised by: Military conquest Expansion and consolidation of Egyptian territory in Nubia and the Near East Unprecedented prosperity and cultural achievement Increased international prestige Overview of the social, political, military and economic structures of the early New Kingdom period Social Structures Approx 3-4million people during New Kingdom period Woman enjoyed higher status than in many other ancient societies, but rarely participated in public life >> main responsibilities within the home, occasionally worked as agricultural labourers or in temples as priestesses, musicians, singers, dancers or professional mourners Egyptian Structure: Red = Upper Classes , Blue = Middle Classes , Green = Lower Classes o King o Nobles and chief government officials o
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