Cheat Sheet - July 4th The Modern State(3rd Wave Democracy...

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July 4th: The Modern State (3rdWave Democracy):Treaty of Westphalia: Political scientist trace origins to 1648, treaty recognized sovereignty of nations, emergence of international laws, war is an instrument of IR. Max Weber: Successful claim to monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory. Also coined Professional Bureaucracy. MS: Recognized borders, doesn’t have to be democratic. Has branches and separation of powers: Legislative: policy and law making, executive: implements and up holds law, administration: bureaucracy activities, judicial: interprets law and carries out.Defend and Tax.Position holds the power: person leaves but the position remains powerful. Night Watchman: Marx: state acted solely in interest of capital. Industrial Revolution, public office and votes for property owners only. Politicians also businessmen, little regulation. Laissez-faire: minimalist state, no work regulations: long days, low pay, dangerous environments. The Welfare State: Economic crash 1929, can’t blame individuals for poverty and no work. Active state, regulate economy and fiscal (spending levels and tax rates) policies. Economic downturn: borrow, and use revenues from growth periods, inject into economy. Infrastructure and social programs would keep up demand. Rough equality: maintain a minimum standard of living. Many groups wanted their interests to be met, (civil rights, women, aboriginals) overloaded government: Neo-liberal state emerges. July 6th:Constitutions: Written US, Unwritten UK. Countries can be compared by looking at their constitutions, govern the governors. Fundamental or Extreme Law: Constitutions set basis for all other laws. Separation of Power: Defines rights/privileges for branches of government, how often for elections. Living Documents: Reflects social values of the times, 1982 in Canada changed constitution to promote equal rights and services, aboriginal rights, and education rights. Federal Constitutions: Divides power among states/provinces US power shared between federaland states (protection from centre). Unitary Constitutions: Such as UK or France. National government has absolute power over territories within country. May have sections of government, but national decides behaviour, not constitution, they can give power to branches, but also take it away. Judiciary: Interprets constitutions, upholds them. But judges of supreme/superior courts not elected, worry about undemocratic means – non-representative. Negative Rights: right not to be interfered with by government, such as Miranda warning – rightto remain silent.Positive Rights: Government intervention is necessary to achieve these rights, such as police protection, or even social programs. July 8th:
Elections, Civil Service, Parties, and Citizen Participation:Representation: met only when the legislative represent broader society. Instrumental Rep, when government speaks on behalf of represented. Elitist form of quasi-democracy. Identities are complex and interests lack clarity – politicians must make some assumptions.

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