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# Chapter 7 - Chapter 7 Atomic Structure and the Periodic...

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Chapter 7 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table OBJECTIVE: This chapter will provide you with a better understanding of light, the electronic structure of atoms ( Section I ), and why elements are arranged in the order they are on the periodic table ( Section II ). KEYTERMS: Wave electromagnetic spectrum isoelectronic Frequency speed of light ionization energy Wavelength photoelectric effect electron affinity Velocity photon ionic radius Period line spectra atomic radius Amplitude discontinuous spectrum periodic trend Standing wave continuous spectrum electronegativity Traveling wave quantum number Constructive interference orbital Destructive interference s orbital Diffraction p orbital Phase d orbital Electromagnetic radiation electron configuration

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SECTION I WAVES, LIGHT AND ELECTRONS IN ATOMS
PART I: WAVES & LIGHT 7-1 SECTION OBJECTIVES : This section will focus on providing you with a basic understanding of waves, what quantitative terms we can use to describe a given wave, and introduce you to electromagnetic radiation. When this section is complete you should be able to: 1) Define the keyterms listed 2) Understand the mathematical relationship between the frequency, wavelength and velocity of a wave. 3) Have a basic understanding of the two different types of waves, properties of waves, and characteristic wave behavior. 4) Be familiar with the electromagnetic spectrum. Know the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and their relative energies with respect to on another.

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Consider the following “ wave How might we describe this “ wave ?” An oscillation! Waves are an oscillation that moves outward from a disturbance (ripples moving away from a pebble dropped into a pond) Waves have a particular wavelength , frequency , amplitude , period , velocity etc… wavelength amplitude crests troughs 7-1
Waves property definition symbol SI units velocity distance traveled per second c m/s amplitude peak height above midline A varies with type of wave wavelength peak-to-peak distance λ m frequency number of peaks passing by per second υ s -1 (called Hertz) period time it takes to complete s 1 cycle of the wave There is a relationship between frequency, velocity and wavelength distance per cycle × cycles per second = distance per second λυ = c •Example problem The speed of sound in air is 330 m/s. Humans can hear sounds with wavelengths between 17 m and 17 mm. What is the highest sound frequency that is audible? 7-1

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Two types of waves Traveling waves : waves travel through a medium, all wavelengths allowed. Example: waves in an ocean.. Standing waves : confined to a certain space (ends fixed). Only very specific wavelengths are allowed. Wave vibrates between two points in space as shown to the right.
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