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Assignment Title:Production of Cement from Recycling CO2via Calera ProcessSubject: UEME 1122 Material ScienceCourse:CL and MEDate of submission: 04-08-2016Name of Lecturer: Dr Thiam Hui SanName of StudentStudent ID NoYear and SemesterRamesh A/L Segaran1500036Y1S2Roland Goh Hon Wei1501017Y1S2Tan Yi Xiang 1503431Y1S1Chee Wai Kit1504740Y1S1Saravanan Raj A/L Pariyasamy1600167Y1S2Received by:Dr Thiam Hui SanDate:04/08/2016Lecturer
Contexts1.Introduction2.Report Body2.1 Properties of Alite2.2 Raw Materials for Manufacturing Alite2.3 Manufacturing Pathway of Alite via Calera Process2.4 Energy Usage for Manufacturing Alite2.5 Effect of the Calera Process2.6 Durability of Recycled Cement3. Conclusion4. References
IntroductionThe word ‘Calera’ came from a Spanish word which means as lime quarry. The idea of this process was first proposed by Brent Constantz in the year 2007. He have shared his plan to an Indian/American billionaire, Vinod Khosla who is interested in a clean technology and the idea was encouraged by him. Calera process is a process which uses the carbon dioxide that’s emitted to the air to produce cement which known as ‘green cement’. As we all know, carbon dioxide is the main contributor to the greenhouse effect that causes global warming and production of concrete makes up to 5% of total carbon footprint on earth (WBCSD, 2005). Therefore, Calera process was presented as a solution to tackle the high carbon emissions from concrete production.Currently, Portland cement is widely used in most construction sites and throughout the world. In order to produce Portland cement, about 36 billion tons of limestone are mined a year. Countless energy lost and emissions of carbon dioxide in the air is increasing gradually as mining of limestone becomes more rapid. Constant supply of limestone is needed due to the booming population and the high demand to create more living space with concrete. Mining of limestone has also set to produce large air pollution to surrounding environments. In order to reduce the usage of Portland cement or have a better alternative to traditional Portland cement, Calera process which produces calcium carbonate can alternatively replace the use of limestone.Portland cement is the basic ingredient for concrete. Cement is manufactured through a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum,
iron and other ingredients. The main ingredient in Portland cement is alite which is known as calcium carbonate. The method that is used commonly to manufacture Portland cement is through the dry method, where it involves in quarrying the rock and mixing it with the iron ore which is then fed to the cement kiln. The cement kiln heats the ingredient at a temperature about 2700 degree Fahrenheit which is about 1482.22 degree Celsius. In the cement kiln, some elements are driven off in the form of gases which known as carbon dioxide gas. In order to reduce the emission of the carbon dioxide gas to the air, Calera process is introduced. It was also proven of its capability to bring a proper alternative to Portland cement.
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Calcium carbonate, Portland cement, Calera Process