Macronutrient and its composition
three major classes of macronutrient classes of molecules
Carbohydrates (quite similar to the starch-like polymer glycogen, long chains
of molecules, such as amylose, amylopectin from plants, and glucose-
Protein (polymer, linear strand of amino acids, there are 20 different kind of
make about half of different kinds of amino acids 10 in
our body, others are called essential amino acids – molecules we need in our
body, but ourselves can not make it and have to obtain from outside sources)
Lipids ( insoluble in water, compose a wide group of molecules, triglycerides
(fat) represent about 95%, cholesterol, plant sterols, lipid vitamins, Vitamin A,
D, and E,
they have not have common property except not water soluble)
Relationship among micronutrients
Glucose is preferred energy source.
Extra glucose stores in muscle cells as the starch like polymer glycogen and if
there’s still an excess of glucose it’s converts to fat (triglycerides, 95%) which we
store in adipocytes (fatty tissue is called adipose tissue).
Fat’s major role is as a
secondary energy source.
Molecules derived from glucose are used by us in biosynthesis of about half of the
20 different kinds of amino acids we put in our proteins.
Distance runner are slender, Victim of starvation” skin and bones”.
Food derived glucose, amino acids, fats and other lipids are sent to each of the
300 trillion living cells via the blood circulatory system: arteries, veins, capillaries
Angiogenesis (the process to create new kind of microcappillaries)
Anti-angiogenesis agents (help to prevent cancerous tumors from growing.
that could compromise the repair of blood vessels if that person had an injury.
When food enter your body
When you eat a meal containing carbohydrate, protein and fat all enter your
digestive system which begins to convert each of the large polymers into their
components, a process that starts in the mouth continues in the stomach and is
completed in the small intestine.
Carbohydrates are converted to individual glucose molecules, proteins into their
constituent amino acids and fats to fatty acids and glycerol (what fats are made of)
What occurs is that the cells of our stomach (mouth for the brief time food is in it)
and the small intestine whose function is the absorption of nutrient molecules
have specific places on the surface of their cell membrane where all the needed
molecules can be transported across the membrane and into the cell itself going
from the alimentary canal into your body and becoming part of you.