BISC150(midterm 1)

BISC150(midterm 1) - Macronutrient and its composition...

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Macronutrient and its composition - three major classes of macronutrient classes of molecules 1. Carbohydrates (quite similar to the starch-like polymer glycogen, long chains of molecules, such as amylose, amylopectin from plants, and glucose- monomer) 2. Protein (polymer, linear strand of amino acids, there are 20 different kind of amino acid. We can make about half of different kinds of amino acids 10 in our body, others are called essential amino acids – molecules we need in our body, but ourselves can not make it and have to obtain from outside sources) 3. Lipids ( insoluble in water, compose a wide group of molecules, triglycerides (fat) represent about 95%, cholesterol, plant sterols, lipid vitamins, Vitamin A, D, and E, they have not have common property except not water soluble) Relationship among micronutrients - Glucose is preferred energy source. - Extra glucose stores in muscle cells as the starch like polymer glycogen and if there’s still an excess of glucose it’s converts to fat (triglycerides, 95%) which we store in adipocytes (fatty tissue is called adipose tissue). Fat’s major role is as a secondary energy source. - Molecules derived from glucose are used by us in biosynthesis of about half of the 20 different kinds of amino acids we put in our proteins. - Distance runner are slender, Victim of starvation” skin and bones”. Angiogenesis - Food derived glucose, amino acids, fats and other lipids are sent to each of the 300 trillion living cells via the blood circulatory system: arteries, veins, capillaries and microcapillaries. - Angiogenesis (the process to create new kind of microcappillaries) - Anti-angiogenesis agents (help to prevent cancerous tumors from growing. But that could compromise the repair of blood vessels if that person had an injury. When food enter your body - When you eat a meal containing carbohydrate, protein and fat all enter your digestive system which begins to convert each of the large polymers into their components, a process that starts in the mouth continues in the stomach and is completed in the small intestine. - Carbohydrates are converted to individual glucose molecules, proteins into their constituent amino acids and fats to fatty acids and glycerol (what fats are made of) - What occurs is that the cells of our stomach (mouth for the brief time food is in it) and the small intestine whose function is the absorption of nutrient molecules have specific places on the surface of their cell membrane where all the needed molecules can be transported across the membrane and into the cell itself going from the alimentary canal into your body and becoming part of you.
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Transporter - All cells and not just the absorptive cells of your digestive system use transporters to obtain needed molecules. That means that there are very many transporters on the surface of the cell membranes of all cells since transporters are able to distinguish one molecule from another. -
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BISC150(midterm 1) - Macronutrient and its composition...

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