Week 2 Session Objectives - Week 2 Session Objectives 1...

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Week 2 Session Objectives 1. Describe the major organelles in eukaryotes and their respective cellular functions . Nucleus: DNA replication Ribosomes: Translation of DNA into protein Golgi Body: Modify proteins Lysosomes: Degradation of cellular materials Microtubules: Transport and structural integrity Mitochondria: Energy Rough ER: Synthesize secreted proteins Plasma Membrane: Functions that are unique to eukaryotes o Asymmetric: Sides relative to inside and outside of cell are different Outer leaflet: Phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin Inner leaflet: Phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinsolitol **Phosphatidylserine has negative charge; contributes to negative charge of inside the cell 2. Name two examples passive transport, active transport, and facilitated diffusion via a channel or carrier Passive Transport: no energy required, transport down gradient (high low conc) o Simple diffusion: Transport of gases or lipid solute substrates outside inside No energy required Cortisol and steroid hormones o Faciliated Diffusion: regulatory protein transporter, similar to an enzyme Bind with some specificity to specific molecule Can be inhibited by pharmacological or other biological agents Can reach saturation point Gated channels: Cl - 3. Compare active transport with secondary active transport ( Figure 10.10 vs. 10.11) Active Transport: Requires Energy to move chemicals against a gradient o Na+/K+ ATPase Binding of 3 Na+ on inside, phosphorylation allows opening of transporter, 3 Na+ move out 2K+ from outside bind, phosphate is released, 2K+ come in (Dephosphorylation) *ATP is used to concentrate a compound Secondary Active Transport: ATP is used to generate gradient o Glucose moves from intestinal lumen extracellular fluid o [Na+] low inside cell o Faciliatated diffusion via transport protein 2 nd AT: Energy used for Na+ ATPase sets up concentration gradient of Na+ allows for movement of glucose from lumen into cell that can then passively diffuse down its gradient out of cell
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4. Determine the change in intra and extracellular Na and K+ concentration when the Na/K ATPase is active Cell has charge of -1 on inside of cell? 5. Name two types of molecules that pass through lipid membranes without the aid of a transporter and describe what controls the rate of transport Cortisol ; concentration of cortisol o Attaches to serum albumin and steroid hormone binding globulin bc hydrophobic o Binds to cortisol receptors in cytosol Receptor has 3 domains Transactivation DNA binding Ligand binding o
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