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Nutriition and Performance .docx - Nutrition and...

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Nutrition and PerformanceFood CategoriesThe foods we eat for energy are broken into 2 categories:Macronutrients:-Largest portion of food we eat and provides useable energy-Also important in body structure and function (ie: cell membrane, DNA, etc)→ Carbohydrates (CARBS)→ Proteins→ FatsMicronutrients:-Assist in biochemical reactions, tissue synthesis & energy systems→ Vitamins→ MineralCarbohydrates-The dominant source of energy for the body (50-60%)-4 cal of energy per gram of carbohydrates-Complexcarbohydrates are digested and absorbed more slowly→ Also, tend to include more vitamins, minerals, protein and fiber→ Bread, fruit, vegetables, beans, and pastaSimplecarbohydrates→ digested and absorbed more rapidly causing big swings in blood glucoselevels→ Sugar, honey, soft drinks, fruit juices, processed and junk foodsGlycemic Index-Measurement of how quickly the carbs are digested and the effect on circulating bloodsugar levels if ingested→ sugar and honey and some fruits have a high glycemic index→ They will absorb quickly and elevate the blood sugar-Insulin will be released in order to move the sugar from the bloodstream into the bodytissues (ie: muscle and fat tissue) resulting in a lowering of the blood sugar levels→ Whole grains, rice, bran, and peas have a moderate glycemic index→ Most fruits, vegetables, beans, and lentils have a low glycemic index
-The range of the glycemic index is from 0-100 and the foods considered to have a valueof 100 are glucose and white breadProteins-Necessary for the growth and repair of body tissue and are involved in almost all thebody processes (50,000 proteins in the human body alone)-10-15% of diet recommended-4 calories of energy for each gram of protein-Body breaks down protein into amino acids (AND SMALLER PEPTIDES)→ 20 different amino acids (a.a) in our bodies→ 9 a.a must be supplied by food we eat (essential a.a), 11 put together inour cells-Complete proteins:food contains all 20a.a’s and are the body's building blocks→ Meat, eggs, cheese, quinoa, soy, and milk-Incomplete proteins:limit amounts of a.a→ Most vegetable proteinsTable: General Protein Requirements per dayGrams of protein per kg of body weightAverage adult0.8Adult athlete in training1.2 to 1.6Elite endurance athlete1.6Elite bodybuilding athlete1.2Growing child1.2 to 1.6Pregnant female1.1→ Therefore, body builders require ⅓ more protein per day which works out toapproximately 72.8 grams of protein compared to 56 grams per day (extra 16.8grams)Fats and lipids(20-35% of diet)-Insulate and protect vital parts of the body-Provides a large source of contracted energy, especially for low intensity activities-9 cal of energy per gram of fatSaturated Fats(“bad fats”)
-Meat, poultry, buttler, lard, hard margarines, animal foods and processed food mostly)-Higher concentration of low density lipoproteins (LDL)-Tend to raise cholesterol or lipid levels in the blood (blood arteries/heart diseases)Unsaturated fats(“good fat”) (mono or poly)-Olive, soybean, corn, sunflower, safflower, sesame oils-Higher concentration of high high density lipoprotein (HDL)-Carries cholesterol and fat out of the blood streamWater-The ultimate “macronutrient”-Makes up the majority of our body mass and is required in large amounts for almost allbody processes→ Aids digestion→ Thermoregulation→ Assists the movement of nutrients in and out of cells ( osmosis and

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