Chapter10 - Pest Control Chapter 10 Crit Anal#2(Agric GMOs...

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Pest Control Chapter 10 Crit Anal #2 (Agric & GMOs) due next Fri Hard copy of revised CA#1 due same day if you wish to revise it
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After studying Ch 10 you should Know current relationship between crop pests and pesticide use Trace historical methods of pest control (1 st generation, 2 nd gen, 3 rd gen, IPM) Know the main types & effects of 2 nd & 3 rd generation pesticides (there R 3 of each) Understand the process of pesticide resistance and the pesticide treadmill Understand the 5 primary IPM strategies and how IPM is used in sustainable agriculture
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Pest Control Annually, 48% of world food production is eaten or destroyed by pests; thus pesticides are used worldwide Ultimate goal is to reduce pest populations to levels that don't cause economic or nutritional damage However, while pesticide use has ~10 fold since the 1940s, crop damage has 2 fold How can crop damage double when pesticide use increased almost 10X?
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Pests Biological Pests reduce the availability, quality, or value of resources useful to humans. There are 1000s of insect, plant, bacterial & fungal pests that damage food crops & harm people Only about 100 species of organisms cause 90% of worldwide crop damage - Most crop pests (75%) are insects - Most pests are similar to local spp, so they compete effectively , pesticides we apply generally affect the local spp as well as the target spp
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Historical pest control 5,000 YBP Sumerians controlled insects with sulfur 2,500 YBP Chinese describe use of mercury and arsenic to control pests 2,500 YBP Romans burned fields and rotated crops to reduce crop disease Pre-WWII plant-based organics and heavy metals Post-WWII synthetic organics Today, IPM
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Pesticide Use Benefits Humans Disease Control Many insects serve as vectors of disease - Malaria, Yellow Fever, Plague, Lyme Crop Protection pesticides reduce pre- and post-harvest losses to diseases and pests by 30-50% In general, farmers save an average of $3-5 for every $1 spent on pesticides
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“Pesticide” Chemical that kills (repels) pests (a.k.a. Biocide ) Herbicide – plants Paraquat Algicide – algae Eclipse3 Insecticide – insects Sevin Fungicide – fungi Dinoseb Acaricide - mites, ticks fluvalinate Molluscicide – snails Metaldehyde Nematicide – roundworms 1,3DCP Rodenticide – rodents Warfarin Avicide – birds Ornitrol Bactericide – bacteria Bacitracin Larvicide – insect larvae Zectran
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Chemical Pesticides VIMP !
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