PSYC7SSII2016_Lecture5&6_CogDev-PiagetVygotsky_ForClass - COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PIAGET AND VYGOTSKY PSYC7 Developmental Foundations Professor Emily

PSYC7SSII2016_Lecture5&6_CogDev-PiagetVygotsky_ForClass...

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PSYC7: Developmental FoundationsProfessor Emily BlumenthalCOGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:PIAGET AND VYGOTSKYAugust 8 & 9, 2016
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Describe the key mechanisms and four stages in Piaget’s theory.Identify the key mechanisms in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?Identify the main characteristics of each of Piaget’s stages of development.Define and explain the significance of: circular reactions, mental representations, symbolic thought, and conservationLEARNING GOALS
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Describe Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development. Explain the relative roles of nature and/or nurture in development.Identify the mechanisms of developmental change, according to Vygotsky.Define and provide an example of social scaffolding, culture tools, and the zone of proximal development.Identify the strengths and weaknesses of Vygotsky’s theory.LEARNING GOALS
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DEFINING COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
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Age (or experience)-related changes in how people:ThinkSolve problems (reasoning)Speak (learn language)WHAT IS COGNITIVEDEVELOPMENT?
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PIAGET’S THEORY
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Observed children at different ages, gave them directed tasks to performDeveloped a theory of cognitivedevelopmentIdentified 5 key mechanismsof developmentIdentified 4 stagesof developmentJEAN PIAGET
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Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulateand explorethe worldThinking is characterized by adaptationand organizationGrouping isolated behaviors and thoughts into higher-order, more smoothly functioning cognitive systemContinual refinement of organization is a part of developmentChildren’s thinking develops through a series of stagesThinking differs qualitativelyfrom stage to stageProgress through the stages is invariantTHEMES FOR PIAGET’S THEORY
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“Jacqueline had a visit from a little boy who, in the course of the afternoon got into a terrible temper. He screamed and pushed at his playpen, stamping his feet. Jacqueline stood watching in amazement, never having witnessed such a scene. The next day, she herself screamed in her playpen and stamped her foot.” (Piaget, 1951, p.63)FROM PIAGET:
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ExplorationChildren learn from activeexploration of their environmentSchemesActions or mental representations that organize knowledgeAssimilationChildren use existing schemes to include new informationAccommodationAdjusting schemes to fit new information and experiencesEquilibrationA drive to balance assimilation and accommodation to achieve a stable understandingMECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENT
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A child seeing a zebra for the first time calls it a horse. The child assimilatesthis information into her schemefor a horse. When the child accommodatesinformation, she takes into consideration the different properties of a zebra compared to a horse, perhaps calling a zebra a horse with stripes. When she eventually learns the name of zebra, she has accommodatedthis information.
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  • Fall '14
  • Blumenthal,EmilyJeanne
  • Theory of cognitive development, mental representations

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