Chapter08

Chapter08 - Environmental Health and Toxicology Chapter 8...

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Environmental Health and Toxicology Chapter 8 Exam 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 29.5 34.5 39.5 44.5 More Grade # Students F D C B A
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After studying Ch 8 you should understand these issues Infectious disease in developing nations Infectious (emerging & exotic) disease in ecosystems Emergent Diseases Chronic Diseases Resistance (Antibiotic and Pesticide) Toxins vs . Hazardous Substances Chronic vs . Acute Responses Bioaccumulation vs . Biomagnification How to Conduct a Risk Assessment
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Infectious Organisms For most of human history, the greatest health threats were pathogens, accidents, and violence Now, however, infectious diseases are responsible for only about 30% of all disease-related deaths ± Majority of deaths occur in countries with poor nutrition, lacking sanitation, and no vaccination programs ± Bacterial infection, Influenza, Giardia, Malaria, and Worms are the greatest causes of communicable deaths in humans ± Malnutrition exacerbates many diseases
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Chronic Diseases Currently the greatest cause of death (60%) and roughly ½ of disease burden ± Heart disease, depression, lung disease, cancer ± Primary cause of death in d’ed nations and increasing importance in d’ing nations
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Ecological Expansion of Diseases Spreading rapidly due to globalization, spread of exotic spp, and stress due to habitat alteration ± Exotic fungi that killed dogwoods & American chestnut ± TSEs (prions) that include CWD in deer, mad cow in cattle, scrapie in sheep and C-J in humans ± Water mold that kills oaks ± Algal diseases that kill corals, marine mammals, fishes TSE Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy CWD Cronic wasting disease C-J Creutzfeld-Jacob disease
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Morbidity (illness) and Quality of Life Because death (mortality) rates don’t tell everything about burden of disease, we attempt to measure quality of life by examining total economic and social consequences of diseases ± Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) combines premature deaths and loss of healthy life resulting from illness or disability - About 90% of all DALY losses occur in developing world where only 1/10 of health care $$ are spent - 90/10 Gap
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Emergent Diseases Contagious diseases never known before or else absent for at least 20 years, are a relatively new factor in human evolution because of crowding, habitat change, and the speed and frequency of modern travel ± Foot and Mouth Disease ± Ebola, West Nile, SARS ± Avian Influenza ± Dengue ± Creuztfeld-Jacob Disease (CJD)
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Antibiotic and Pesticide Resistance Viruses, bacteria, insects, fungi, etc. have
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2008 for the course BIOL 103 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '08 term at VCU.

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Chapter08 - Environmental Health and Toxicology Chapter 8...

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