Chapter16

Chapter16 - Air Pollution After studying Ch16 you should...

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Air Pollution After studying Ch16 you should know ± Major natural and anthropogenic pollutants and where they are found ± What human activities result in pollutants - VIMP: ± Diff. between Primary and Secondary pollutants ± Health and environmental impacts of pollutants ± The concept of pH; what acid deposition is; how acid deposition is produced ± How stratospheric O 3 shields us from UV; types of UV; processes that destroy O 3 ± Actions that minimize release of air pollutants
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Fires – Hydrogen bromide, CO, CO 2 , smoke Volcanoes – Ash, acids (begin as SO x x ) Sea Spray – Salt crystals, Sulfur Vegetation - Volatile organics Bacterial Metabolism –CH 4 Dust Pollen Viruses and Bacteria - very small particles
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Anthropogenic air pollutants Per year humans emit: ± 114M MT SO x ± 230M MT NO x ± 9B MT CO 2 ± 1B MT CO ± 2M MT Pb Combustion, Friction, Evap’n Transportation Power Plants Industry Natural Natural
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Rapid combination of fuel w/ O 2 to form other products & release energy; an initial input of energy starts a chain reaction that continues until all fuel is combusted Complete Complete (must be VERY HOT VERY HOT to be complete) CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O + energy Incomplete Incomplete ( not so hot not so hot ) 2C + O 2 2CO CO CO is a colorless, odorless, toxic gas produced by incomplete fuel combustion Plus, N 2 in air also combines w/ O 2 at high temps N 2 + O 2 NO NO 2
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Primary air pollutants Those emitted directly from the source into the air Particulates (< 2.5 µ damage lungs) Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) Hydrocarbons (e.g., CH 4 ) 2 ) Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) Halogens (e.g., HF, CFCs) Metals (e.g., Pb, Hg) Volatile Organic Cmpds (VOCs – industr solvents)
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Acid Deposition Wet precipitation or dry particulates that are very low pH pH pH means the concentration of free hydrogen ions in a solution [ H + ]. It is measured on a scale of “potential hydrogen” that ranges from: pH = 0 pH = 0 pH = 14 pH = 14 acidic basic (alkaline) e.g., vinegar e.g., baking soda
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The pH scale Why is normal rain acidic? Why is normal rain acidic?
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Chapter16 - Air Pollution After studying Ch16 you should...

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