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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 18 Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases 1* True or false: ( a ) Two objects in thermal equilibrium with each other must be in thermal equilibrium with a third object. ( b ) The Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales differ only in the choice of the zero temperature. ( c ) The kelvin is the same size as the Celsius degree. ( d ) All thermometers give the same result when measuring the temperature of a particular system. ( a ) False ( b ) False ( c ) True ( d ) False 2 How can you determine if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with each other if it is impossible to put them into thermal contact with each other? Put each in thermal equilibrium with a third body, e.g., a thermometer. 3 Which is greater, an increase in temperature of 1 C or of 1 F ? An increase of 1 o C is greater. 4 "One day I woke up and it was 20 F in my bedroom," said Mert to his old friend Mort. "That's nothing," replied Mort. "My room was once 5 C." Which room was colder? Convert 20 o F to t C ; Equ. 18-2 t C = (5/9)(20 32) = 6.67 o C; 20 o F is colder 5* A certain ski wax is rated for use between 12 and 7 C. What is this temperature range on the Fahrenheit scale? Convert 12 and 7 o C to t F using t F = (9/5) t C + 32 t F1 = 10.4 o F; t F2 = 19.4 o F; between 10.4 o F and 19.4 o F 6 The melting point of gold (Au) is 1945.4 F. Express this temperature in degrees Celsius. Use Equ. 18-2 t C = (5/9)(1954.4 32) = 1068 o C 7 The highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded in the United States are 134 F (in California in 1913) and 80 F (in Alaska in 1971). Express these temperatures using the Celsius scale. Use Equ. 18-2 t CH = (5/9)102 = 56.7 o C; t CL = (5/9)( 112) = 62.2 o C 8 What is the Celsius temperature corresponding to the normal temperature of the human body, 98.6 F? Use Equ. 18-2 t C = (5/9)66.6 = 37.0 o C 9* The length of the column of mercury in a thermometer is 4.0 cm when the thermometer is immersed in ice water Chapter 18 Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases and 24.0 cm when the thermometer is immersed in boiling water. ( a ) What should the length be at room temperature, 22.0 C? ( b ) If the mercury column is 25.4 cm long when the thermometer is immersed in a chemical solution, what is the temperature of the solution? ( a ), ( b ) L = [(20/100) t C + 4] cm ( a ) L = 8.4 cm ( b ) t C = (5 21.4) o C = 107 o C 10 The temperature of the interior of the sun is about 10 7 K. What is this temperature on ( a ) the Celsius scale, and ( b ) the Fahrenheit scale? Neglect 32 and 273 compared to 10 7 ( a ) t C t K = 10 7o C ( b ) t F (9/5) t K = 1.8 10 7o F 11 The boiling point of nitrogen N 2 is 77.35 K. Express this temperature in degrees Fahrenheit....
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- Spring '08