Chapter19

Chapter19 - Conventional Energy After studying Chapter 19...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–9. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Conventional Energy After studying Chapter 19 you should know: E basics (definitions and thermodynamics) Current E sources (how this cp . historically) Relative E consumption by diff. sectors and societies Timetables for depletion of nonrenewable fuels Enviro impact of Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas How a Nuclear Reactor works Fission vs . fusion Half-life (know how to calculate) Enviro impact and risk analysis Waste management
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
What is Energy (E)? Work – Ability to move something = application of force across a distance Energy - The capacity or ability to do WORK, e.g., heat, sunlight, sound, electricity, chemical bonds, movement ± POTENTIAL Energy - " stored " and not presently being used; results from the relative position of matter (as opposed to matter in motion) e.g., biomass, coal, oil, natural gas ± KINETIC Energy - energy associated with a body in motion e.g., heat, γ rays, sunlight, sound, electricity, mvmt
Background image of page 2
Thermodynamics The study of energy and its transformation I. First Law of Thermodynamics Energy Conservation : input = output E is neither created nor destroyed, it's just converted from one form to another II. Second Law of Thermodynamics Energy Degradation : infrared E is converted from more concentrated to less concentrated forms Heat (an inefficient form of thermal E) is given off during conversion. In fact, about 50% of E in primary fuels is lost during conversion in the power plant or during transmission and stepping down to household voltages
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Thermodynamics (continued) Power - Rate at which work is done calorie - amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 o C Joule - Amount of work done when a force of 1 newton is exerted over 1 meter BTU – a measure of quantity of heat, defined as the quantity of energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1 lb. of water by 1° Fahrenheit
Background image of page 4
Energy Use Time Line Muscle power provided by domestic animals has been important since dawn of agriculture 8-10,000 YBP Commercial FF consumption began ~ 3000 YBP US FF (coal) use escalated circa 1830 US FF (oil) extraction peaked ~ 1971 World production peaks sometime ’98-’08 Eisenhower promoted nuclear 1953; most generators constructed in 1970s for a total of 103 reactors that currently produce ~20% of US electricity Nuclear-elec was about half the price of coal-elec in 1970, but it’s twice the cost now Early 1980s saw increased interest in conservation and renewable energy Oil glut (mid 1980s) caused prices to fall, fell again ’98, currently increasing consumption despite hi price
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
World Energy (QBTUs presented by US gov’t)
Background image of page 6
Current World Commercial Energy Sources http://www.eia.doe.gov/ for US stats http://earthtrends.wri.org/ and www.iea.org for World stats Energy sources: Fossil fuels (FF) 80% Renewable 14% Nuclear 6% Energy uses: Industry 38% Residential & Business 35% Transportation 27%
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Per Capita E & petro consumption Richest 20 countries consume most of nat’l gas and oil and 50% of coal E use is directly proportional to GNP ± Annual use of E per person in the US and Canada is > 300 GJ ± In poorest countries, annual E use per person < 1 GJ US uses 20 M BL/day (import > 50% annual oil supply) World uses 85 M BL/day
Background image of page 8
Image of page 9
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/22/2008 for the course BIOL 103 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '08 term at VCU.

Page1 / 40

Chapter19 - Conventional Energy After studying Chapter 19...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 9. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online