chapter20

chapter20 - Sustainable Energy After studying Chapter 20...

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Unformatted text preview: Sustainable Energy After studying Chapter 20 you should know about: Energy Conservation and Cogeneration Energy policy Alternative energy sources & their environ. effects Solar, Wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric, Hydrogen, & Geothermal Tapping solar energy for heating Passive vs . Active solar technology Thermal and PV solar energy for electricity Fuel cells Utilization Efficiencies Utilization Efficiencies- Most of the potential energy in fuel (coal & oil) is lost as waste heat Hi oil prices in the 70s, avg US auto gas mileage from 13 mpg in 75 to 28.8 mpg in 88 Falling fuel prices of the 80s discouraged further conservation Insulation (quick, cheap, effective) - todays average new home uses 50% fuel used to heat/cool a house built in 1974 per m 2 (but avg home is bigger now!) New national standards: New washing machines will use 35% less water Cuts US water use by 40 T liters annually CO 2 standards currently being contested by mfg indus. Promoting Renewable Energy Proposed Energy Conservation Policies : Distributional Surcharges Small fee levied on all utility customers Renewable Portfolio Suppliers must get minimum percentage of power from renewable sources Green Pricing Allows utilities to profit from conservation programs and charge premium prices for renewable energy; yep, an extra charge if you wish your power to come from a renewable source Conversion Efficiencies Energy Efficiency is a measure of energy produced compared to energy consumed. Thermal conversion machines (e.g., ICE) turn < 40% of energy in fuel into electricity or mechanical power due to waste heat. Fuel cells can theoretically approach 80% efficiency using hydrogen or methane. Energy Yield- How much E per g? Coal 30 kJ/g, Gasoline 46 kJ/g, Methane 54 kJ/g, Hydrogen 143 kJ/g, Nuclear 10 9 kJ/g !!!!! Alternative Energy There are 7 sustainable alternatives for locally available E: Conservation (#1, cheapest) Solar Wind Biomass Hydroelectric Hydrogen Geothermal Renewable energy policy must be developed around these alternatives A.k.a. clean energy Energy Conservation Cost- Today it costs 1-2 cents per kwh to get E thru conservation 5-7 cents per kwh to get E from coal 5-12 cents per kwh to get E from wind 6-10 cents per kwh to get E from solar 5-15 cents per kwh to get E from methane 8-12 cents per kwh to get E from nuclear 6-25 cents per kwh to get E from hydrogen Cogeneration- use excess steam to warm bldgs, to generate elec., & to heat H 2 O Transportation- develop more mass transit and mpg Industry- RECYCLE because 75% E used in industry is to extract & process raw materials !...
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chapter20 - Sustainable Energy After studying Chapter 20...

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