Inheritance II

Inheritance II - : Purple Yellow Round Green True-breeding...

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True-breeding organisms (when crossed to each other) produce offspring that look the same as parents. A monohybrid cross examines 2 variants of a single trait. In a cross between two different-looking true breeders, offspring look all the same (and same as 1 parent). : Purple Yellow Round Green
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A diploid organism carries 2 alleles of a gene. Heterozygotes have dominant phenotypes
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In a dihybrid cross, the alleles of each gene assort independently.
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Test cross is a way to tell homozygous dominant from heterozygous
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Predicting results of crossings Rule of addition : the probability of at least one of 2 mutually exclusive events occurring is the sum of their individual probabilities. When crossing Pp x Pp, the probability of producing Pp offspring is probability of obtaining Pp (1/4), PLUS probability of obtaining pP (1/4) ¼ + ¼ = ½
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Rule of multiplication : the probability of 2 independent events occurring simultaneously is the PRODUCT of their individual probabilities. When crossing Rr Yy x RrYy, the probability of obtaining rr yy offspring is: probability of obtaining rr (= ¼) X probability of obtaining yy (= ¼). Probability of rr yy = ¼ x ¼ = 1/16 R r R RR Rr r Rr rr Y y Y YY Yy y Yy yy
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that: -each trait is controlled by a single gene -each gene has only 2 alleles -there is a clear dominant-recessive relationship between the alleles Most genes do not meet these criteria. Mendel’s model of inheritance is still
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Inheritance II - : Purple Yellow Round Green True-breeding...

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