Unformatted text preview: Affect and Decision Making Outline Theories Experiments on positive affect Experiments on negative affect Overall results and implications Decision Affect Theory Mellers, Schwarz & Ritov (1999) "When all else was constant, pleasure increase with the amount of the win, and displeasure increased with the amount of the loss" (333) People try to increase their level of pleasure Affect Heuristic Affect is used in almost every decision we make A heuristic because it simplifies the decision process Zajonc (1980) Shoes Priming Mood Maintenance In people with positive affect it makes them want to stay in their state of happiness Can make people risk averse Now that they've gained something, they have something to lose (Isen & Geva, 1987). Can cause switching behavior (Ratner, Herbst & Erivan, 2005). Positive Affect Much research done by Alice M. Isen Isen, Daubman & Nowicki (1987) studied creative decision making Candle Task Experiment 1 Manipulated affect (positive/neutral) and material placement control/suggestive) Experiment 2 Manipulated affect (positive/neutral/negative) Experiments 3 & 4 word association test Positive Affect Shallower thinking, greater use of heuristics (Schwarz, 1998) Easier to remember positive outcomes, more optimistic about future (Fiske & Taylor, 1984) More optimistic about risky decisions (Williams et al., 2003) Cause riskseeking and risk averse behavior (Nygren et al., 1996) Negative Affect Williams, Zainuba, & Jackson (2003) Surveyed business managers with questionnaires about "future oriented business risk assessments" Both managers with positive affect or negative affect were riskaverse NA: focus on negative aspects of gains and it eventually became not worth the risk Important because PA and NA are not just opposites Negative Affect Not as much research as PA unhappy IRBs? Forgas (1989) found that subjects with NA wanted friendly partners to work with Took longer making decisions Were less likely to use attributes Were not necessarily better decision makers Research has shown it easier to recall negative events, focus on negative outcomes of risks (Williams et al., 2003) and only slightly improves creativity (Isen et al., 1987) Implications Decision making with affect is important because it's how people actually make decisions Not in a vacuum It's complex ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2008 for the course SOC 321 taught by Professor Reiter during the Fall '08 term at Ohio State.
- Fall '08