Principles of Development
•Cephalocaudal Principle - from Latin, meaning
“head to tail”
•Proximodistal Principle - from Latin, meaning
“near to far”
Changes in Body Proportions:
Changes in body proportion from the
early prenatal period to adulthood
•During the first 2 years, the body grows more
rapidly than at any time after birth.
•Research indicates that growth seems to occur in
spurts, often after long periods of no growth.
•In infancy, girls are slightly shorter and lighter
•Body fat increases after birth and peaks around
9 month of age.
•Toddlers become more slender, a trend that
continues until middle childhood.
•Muscle tissue increases very slowly and doesn’t
peak until adolescence.
•The best way to estimate a child’s physical
maturity is to use
, a measure of the
body’s bone development.
are the growth centers in the bones
where new cartilage cells are produced and gradually
As growth continues, the epiphyses get thinner
and disappear, and no more growth of the bone is
Long bone and epiphyses
•An infant’s first tooth usually appears
between 4 to 6 months of age.
2, the child has 20 teeth.
•A child who gets her teeth early is
likely to be advanced in physical
At birth, the brain is nearer to its adult size than
any other physical structure and it continues to
develop at an astounding pace during infancy and
Neurons that are stimulated by input from the
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