04 - Physical development during infancy and toddlerhood-classroom

04 - Physical development during infancy and toddlerhood-classroom
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1 Body Growth Principles of Development •Cephalocaudal Principle - from Latin, meaning “head to tail” •Proximodistal Principle - from Latin, meaning “near to far” Changes in Body Proportions: Changes in body proportion from the early prenatal period to adulthood •During the first 2 years, the body grows more rapidly than at any time after birth. •Research indicates that growth seems to occur in spurts, often after long periods of no growth. •In infancy, girls are slightly shorter and lighter than boys.
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2 •Body fat increases after birth and peaks around 9 month of age. •Toddlers become more slender, a trend that continues until middle childhood. •Muscle tissue increases very slowly and doesn’t peak until adolescence. •The best way to estimate a child’s physical maturity is to use skeletal age , a measure of the body’s bone development. •The epiphyses are the growth centers in the bones where new cartilage cells are produced and gradually harden. As growth continues, the epiphyses get thinner and disappear, and no more growth of the bone is possible. Long bone and epiphyses
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3 •An infant’s first tooth usually appears between 4 to 6 months of age. By age 2, the child has 20 teeth. •A child who gets her teeth early is likely to be advanced in physical maturity. At birth, the brain is nearer to its adult size than any other physical structure and it continues to develop at an astounding pace during infancy and toddlerhood. Neurons that are stimulated by input from the
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