06 - Psychosocial development 1st 3 years

06 - Psychosocial development 1st 3 years - First Three...

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1 First Three Years Foundations of Psychosocial Development •Emotions •Temperament •Early experiences with parents When do emotions develop? Soon after birth These emotions are called basic emotions. Basic emotions are those that can be directly inferred from facial expressions, such as happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust. Earliest faint smile – soon after birth (as a result of central nervous system activity) At about 1 month (btw. 6 and 10 weeks) – social smile with cooing Laughter appears around 2 to 4 months, reflecting faster processing of information than smiling. This reflects cognitive development, by knowing what to expect.
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2 Anger and fear rises during the second half of the 1 st year. The most frequent expression of fear is to unfamiliar adults, a response called stranger anxiety. Stranger anxiety is the infant’s expression of fear in response to unfamiliar adults. It depends on several factors: temperament, past experiences with strangers, and the situation in which baby and stranger meet. Understanding and Responding to the Emotions of Others Social referencing is the understanding of an ambiguous situation by seeking out another person’s perception of it. This occurs between 7 and 10 months old. Visual Cliff
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3 Emergence of Self-Conscious Emotions Self-Conscious Emotions – are emotions that involve injury to or enhancement of the sense of self. Examples are shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, and pride. It appears after self-awareness the cognitive understanding of the self. Self-awareness appears between 15 to 24 months, when infants become able to make mental representations. Self-conscious emotions help children acquire socially valued behaviors and goals. It will vary from culture to culture Beginnings of Emotional Self-Regulation Emotional Self-Regulation – Strategies for adjusting our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity. Infants have a limited capacity to regulate their emotional states, so they depend on the interventions of caregivers Rapid development of the cerebral cortex increases the baby’s tolerance for stimulation. By the end of 1 st year, babies’ ability to move around allows them to regulate feelings more effectively. Growth in mental representation and language allows toddlers to describe their emotions. It refers to an individual consistent pattern of style of reacting to a broad range of environmental events and situation. Thomas and Chess - New York Longitudinal Study Results indicated: 1. temperament is predictive of psychological adjustment; 2. parenting practices can modify children’s emotional styles.
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4 Nine Components of Temperament • Activity level • Regularity of Eating, Sleeping, and Elimination • Approach or Withdrawal to or From Novel Stimuli and
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2008 for the course SOC 321 taught by Professor Reiter during the Fall '08 term at Ohio State.

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06 - Psychosocial development 1st 3 years - First Three...

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