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02 - PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT

02 - PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT - PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Stages of...

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1 PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Stages of Prenatal Development 1. Germinal or Zygote Stage (Fertilization to about 2 weeks) Rapid cell division and increasing complexity. It ends when the organism attaches itself to the wall of the uterus. 2. Embryonic Stage (from implantation to the 8 th week ) Rapid growth and development of organs and major body systems. Critical period Males are more likely than females to be spontaneously aborted or stillborn. 3. Fetal Stage (from 8 th week to birth) Increased detail of body parts and greatly enlarged body size. Activity of fetuses vary in amount and kind, and heart rates vary in regularity and speed - temperament Teratogens It refers to any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period. The harm done by teratogens will depend on: Dose Heredity The presence of several negative factors at once Age of prenatal organism 9 Sensitive period 9 Zygote period 9 Embryonic period The effects of teratogens may have psychological consequences. These effects may be harder to identify than physical damage, and may not show up until later in development. MATERNAL FACTORS IN PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Difficult to research Nutrition Physical Activity Emotional Stress Drug Intake Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and AIDS Other Maternal Illness Maternal Age Incompatibility of Blood Types Medical X-rays Environmental Hazards
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2 DIFFICULT TO RESEARCH •Research from animal •Reports by mothers after childbirth Both methods have limitations: it is not always accurate to apply findings from animals to human beings, and women do not always remember what they did during pregnancy NUTRITION Ideal Weight Gain – between 25 and 30 pounds. Well-Balanced Diet – “Consisting of a gradual increase in calories – an extra 100 calories a day in 1 st trimester, 265 in the second, and 430 in the third.” (Reifsnider & Gill, 2000 in Berk, 2005; p. 117).
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