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Study Guide - Todd Snyder Midterm 2 study guide Feb 1 Feb 8...

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Todd Snyder 5/12/2009 Midterm 2 study guide Lecture 1: Chapter 2 Cells, Organelles and Cell Division I. Cells a. Types i. Prokaryotic 1. no nucleus a. yellow rod shaped bacteria ii. Eukaryotic 1. nucleus and organelles a. blue cells in our immune system b. Cell parts i. Plasma Membrane 1. phospholipid bilayer 2. cholesterol 3. glycoproteins a. transport receptors b. ion channels c. cell-cell interaction d. defect i. cystic fibrosis 1. membrane protein in cytoplasm and not cell wall 2. sticky mucus build up ii. Nucleus 1. nuclear envelope a. two phospholipid bilayers 2. nuclear pores Feb. 1 Cells, Organelles and Cell Division L: Ch.. 2; also see PPT docs on Blackboard Feb. 8 Genetics: DNA information and Use L: Ch. 1 & 2; see PPT Feb. 13 Genetic Diseases L: Ch. 1 & 3; some Ch. 4 & 13; see PPT Feb. 15 Sexual Development and Human Development L: Ch. 3; some Ch. 21 & 6; see PPT Feb. 20 Pathogens: Diseases, Bioweapons, and Vaccines L: some Ch. 17; see PPT Feb. 22 Sexually Transmitted Diseases L: Some Ch. 17; see PPT Feb. 27 Immunity: Innate Response L: Some Ch. 17; see PPT
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a. allows movement of molecules in and out of nucleus 3. nucleolus a. production of ribosomes begins 4. chromosomes a. composed of DNA bound to proteins iii. Endoplasmic Reticulum 1. rough a. ribosomes on surface i. make proteins ii. next moved to smooth e.r. 2. smooth iv. Golgi Apparatus 1. site of final protein folding 2. stores material to be secreted 3. releases vesicles so transportation to the plasma membrane can be completed v. Mitochondrion 1. Synthesizes ATP to be used for energy 2. has own small circular DNA 3. inherited from mother vi. Lysosomes 1. garbage center 2. contains digestive enzymes 3. Tay-Sachs Disease a. Inherited defect in lysosomal proteins b. Excessive storage of lipids in lysosomes vii. Peroxisomes 1. contains several types of enzymes 2. breaks down lipids 3. Detoxify compounds 4. Abundant in liver and kidneys 5. ALD a. Inherited defect that prevents transportation to peroxisomes viii. Cytoskeleton 1. Fibers and filaments composed of proteins a. Microfilaments b. Intermediate filaments c. Microtubules 2. functions a. maintain cell shape b. connect cells to each other c. transports organelles and other cargo d. move chromosomes c. Cell Division and Cell Death
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i. Mitosis 1. produces new somatic cells a. Interphase i. Chromosomes are uncondensed b. Prophase i. Nuclear envelope breaks down ii. Chromosomes condensed iii. Centrioles and spindles appear and align c. Metaphase i. Chromosomes align d. Anaphase i. Centrioles separate the sister chromatids e. Telophase i. Spindles go away and nuclear envelope forms ii. Apoptosis 1. cell death that is a part normal development a. death receptors or doomed cells attach and signal the release of caspases b. caspases destroy cell c. phagocytes engulf cell and disintegrate it iii. Necrosis 1. cell death in response to injury iv. Cell cycle 1. G1 S G2 Mitosis G1/ G0 a. S phase = DNA synthesis i. Duplication of chromosomes ii. Produces sister chromotids held together at the centromere b. G1 and G2 = growth faces c. Mitosis (more specifically Cytokinesis) = cell division i.
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