cogs107cs9 - I. Frontal cortex: a. overview i....

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I. Frontal cortex: a. overview i. Traditionally seat of intelligence ii. Phylogenetically new iii. Humans have particularly large frontal lobes iv. Other animals thought not to have frontal lobes until recently: 1. Anatomically delineated by thalamic connections b. Anatomy: i. High degree of connectivity 1. Especially with subcortical structures 2. Subcortical oscillators may result in different frontal cortex states ii. Can be broken into: 1. Motor cortex 2. Premotor cortex 3. Prefrontal cortex 4. Orbitofronal/ventromedial prefrontal cortex 5. Anterior cingulated gyrus 6. Broca’s area iii. Major systems: 1. Dorsolateral 2. Orbital 3. Medial/cingulated c. Premotor cortex i. Basal ganglia ->cortico-thalamic loops ii. Involved in motor planning iii. Damage impairs 1. integration of separate movements into fluid sequences of action 2. Output constrains motor actions 3. Reflex changes/counter-pull 4. Grasping (involuntary) 5. Tuning (other areas) d. Prefrontal cortex i. Working memory: 1. Digit span/bites of information 2. Basis of conceptual framework, perhaps 3. Primate research: a. Neurons in this area are preferential for holding delays in delayed response tasks b. If region is deactivated, animals cannot hold memory c. People with damage to this region have working memory problems (not amnesia) d. THC affects this region 4. Lesion work:
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a. Regional specialization 5. Damage: a. Impaired response inhibition b. Impulsivity c. Perseveration d. Reduced fluency/cognitive flexibility e. Wisconsin card sorting task f. Difficulty generating hypotheses (abstract concepts) and flexibly allocating to new demands g. Alternating and sequencing defecits h. Planning and organizing tasks
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2008 for the course COGS 107C taught by Professor Chiba during the Spring '07 term at UCSD.

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cogs107cs9 - I. Frontal cortex: a. overview i....

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