107cs3 - I. II. Human sleep research looks at EEG...

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I. Human sleep research looks at EEG components to establish different boundaries of sleep: a. NREM: i. drowsy – alpha (8-12 cps) ii. 1 – theta (3-7 cps) iii. 2 sleep spindles, k complexes (12 -14 cps) 1. k complexes can be elicited with external auditory cues 2. sleep spindles generated by synapses in the thalamus iv. deep sleep delta waves (.5 -2 cps), 75 microV, eeg synchrony b. REM i. Desynchronized – like awake but with sawtooth waves ii. "paradoxical sleep" deepest but like waking iii. Possibly produced by the pons by way of the projections from the pontine nuclei (LDT=lateral dorsal tegmental nucleus & PPT= pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus) to thalamic nuclei that project broadly to various cortical areas. II. cellular and biological mechanisms of sleep vs wakefullness: a. for wake: i. brainstem cholinergic (ACh) ii. locus coeruleus (NE) iii. Raphe nuclei (5-HT) b. non-rem (same locales inactive): i. Cholinergic nuclei ii. Locus coeruleus iii. Raphe nuclei c. Rem on: i. cholinergic Active (PGO waves)
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107cs3 - I. II. Human sleep research looks at EEG...

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