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Unformatted text preview: GOV 365N: Lecture 2: Sept. 5 th I. What is Democracy? II. Defining Democracy- equality, voting rights- suffrage, free market, human rights, civil liberties, elected officials, checks and balances, free and fair elections, competitive elections, sovereignty, information a. A Minimal Definition- Free & fair elections, competitive elections, universal suffrage 1. Emphasis on Process not Output- helps us analysis democracy more efficiently b. Advantages & Disadvantages (of procedure rather than output) Advantage- allows for variance in the category of democracy (different types of democracy), not guaranteeing success which allows a broad range of democracy, study consequences of democracy by defining democracy procedurally Disadvantage (of minimal procedural democracy)- sometimes we lose a bit of democracy in between elections Joseph Schumpeter- Democracy is ―the institutional arrangement for arriving at apolitical decisions in which individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the people‘s vote III. Necessary Elements of Democracy a. Dahl‘s ―Procedural Minimal‖ Conditions 1. Public Contestation- competition for public office a. Electoral competition- need more than one party (2 or multiple party system); elections need to be free and fair b. Individual Freedoms- if you don‘t basic freedoms(support structure for electoral competition), then the competition is constrained; leads to less participation; basic freedoms- free & fair elections, etc. 2. Inclusion a. Universal Suffrage- if you remove a certain people form participation then your detracting from democracy b. Universal Opportunity to Run for Office 3. Democratic Sovereignty- people who are elected make the decisions a. Domestic b. International- influence from international forces may detract from democracy IV. Democracy as a Continuum Closed authoritarianism- systems that don‘t hold elections or competitive elections, i.e.- North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Cuba, China (for the most part) Liberal Democracy- advance democracy; countries that regularly hold free and fair elections, has universal suffrage, protects civil rights, free from undoing influences- from international and domestic officials; i.e.- US, Canada, Japan, New Zealand Hybrid systems- Electoral Democracy- meets the minimal req. of having free and fair elections; called electoral because they are new and the institutions aren‘t fully develop; states that have f&f elections but in between elections they have difficulty with civil liberties and over concentration of power in a single branch of power (executive branch) Competitive Authoritarianism- states that hold competitive elections for national office, looks like democracy but unlike electoral democracy, don‘t really have f&f elections, incumbent power manipulate process to a certain extent (manipulates media so other parties don‘t have a fair chance or manipulate vote count); Handout #1: Dahl‘s Minimal Conditions for Democracy...
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- Fall '06