terms 11-30

terms 11-30 - Collectivism: A term used to describe the...

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Collectivism : A term used to describe the consensus that drove politics in the harmonious post war period when a significant majority of Britons and all major political parties agreed that the state should take expanded responsibility for economic governance and provide for the social welfare in the broadest terms. -People expected governments to work to narrow the gap between rich and poor through policies of welfare state. It brought class based actors inside politics and forged broad consensus about the expanded role of government but failed during harsh economic times. Welfare state : Not a form of state, but rather a set of public policies designed to provide for its citizen’s needs through direct or indirect provisions of pensions, health care, unemployment insurance and assistance to the poor. - During collectivism Britain provided much of the welfare state policies to its citizens because of the increased involvement of the government in all aspects of life. Many countries still have welfare state policies such as Canada who provides its citizens with free health care. Permanent secretary : The most senior civil servant of the British government ministry. He is charged with running the day-to-day business in the department and is the non-political service head that reports to the political secretary of state. -The permanent secretary is significant because he is the head of the department, which means he is in charge of spending money granted by parliament appropriately. This position is also significant because the permanent secretary is held accountable for every thing that happens in his department whether he knows of it or not. Proportional representation : a system of political representation in which seats are allocated to parties within multimember constituencies, roughly in proportion to the votes each parties receive. -Proportional representation usually encourages the election to parliament of more political parties than single member district winner take all type systems. The French used PR after the war in the 4 th republic, which lead to an unstable governing in the national assembly and ultimately a regime that could not make long term policy. End of History : written by Francis Fukuyama, it states that the end of the cold war marks the point of mankind’s ideological evolution and the universalization of western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. -The end of history is significant because its assumption that democracy is the end all be all of human government is actually supported by quantifiable evidence. There are more democracies after the war and there is a severe downturn in the number of conflicts after the cold war.
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Fukuyama also states that any country that is not democratic will eventually become democratic or disintegrate. An argument in opposition to this is Huntington’s clash of civilizations. Margaret Thatcher
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2008 for the course PSCI 2012 taught by Professor Davidbrown during the Spring '07 term at Colorado.

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terms 11-30 - Collectivism: A term used to describe the...

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