07 Ch04 - CHAPTER 4 The Reactions of Alkenes Important...

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121 CHAPTER 4 The Reactions of Alkenes Important Terms acid-catalyzed reaction a reaction catalyzed by an acid. alkoxymercuration- addition of an alcohol to an alkene using mercuric acetate followed by sodium reduction borohydride and sodium hydroxide. carbene a neutral carbon with a lone-pair of electrons and an empty orbital. carbocation the rearrangement of a carbocation to a more stable carbocation. rearrangement catalyst a compound that increases the rate at which a reaction occurs without being consumed in the reaction. Because it does not change the equilibrium constant of the reaction, it does not change the amount of product that is formed. catalytic hydrogenation the addition of hydrogen to a double or a triple bond with the aid of a metal catalyst. concerted reaction a reaction in which all the bond-making and bond-breaking processes take place in a single step. constitutional isomers molecules that have the same molecular formula but differ in the way the atoms (structural isomers) are connected. dimer a molecule formed by joining together two identical molecules. electrophilic addition an addition reaction in which the first species that adds to the reactant is an reaction electrophile. epoxide (oxirane) an ether in which the oxygen is incorporated into a three-membered ring. halohydrin an organic molecule that contains a halogen atom and an OH group. Hammond postulate states that the transition state will be more similar in structure to the species (reactants or products) that it is closer to energetically. heat of hydrogenation the heat ( H °) released in a hydrogenation reaction. heterogeneous catalyst a catalyst that is insoluble in the reaction mixture. hormone a compound that controls growth and other changes in tissues. hydration addition of water to a compound. 1,2-hydride shift the movement of a hydride ion from one carbon to an adjacent carbon. hydroboration-oxidation the addition of borane to an alkene (or to an alkyne) followed by reaction with hydrogen peroxide and hydroxide ion.
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122 Chapter 4 hydrogenation addition of hydrogen. hyperconjugation delocalization of electrons by overlap of carbon-hydrogen or carbon-carbon σ bonds with an empty p orbital. Markovnikov's rule the actual rule is: “When a hydrogen halide adds to an asymmetrical alkene, the addition occurs such that the halogen attaches itself to the carbon atom of the alkene bearing the least number of hydrogen atoms.” Chemists use the rule as follows: The hydrogen adds to the sp 2 carbon that is bonded to the greater number of hydrogens. A more general rule is: The electrophile adds to the sp 2 carbon that is bonded to the greater number of hydrogens. mechanism of the reaction a description of the step-by-step process by which reactants are changed into products.
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07 Ch04 - CHAPTER 4 The Reactions of Alkenes Important...

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