Lecture (1) - Chapter 1 Computer Abstractions and...

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Chapter 1 Computer Abstractions and Technology
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Chapter 1 Computer Abstractions and Technology 21 The Computer Revolution Progress in computer technology Underpinned by Moore’s Law Makes novel applications feasible Computers in automobiles Cell phones Human genome project World Wide Web Search Engines Computers are pervasive
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What is a computer? 22
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What is a computer? 23
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Computer System A Computer is a programmable machine: o responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner. o can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program ). o consist of machinery (wires, transistors, and circuits is called hardware ) and the instructions and data are called software . o Memory: Enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data and programs. o Mass storage device: Allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of data. disk drives and tape drives. o Central processing unit (CPU): The heart of the computer, this is the component that actually executes instructions. 24
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Computers Classification 25
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Computers Classification Computers can be generally classified by purpose as follows: o General purpose computers are computational devices that are designed to perform, in a reasonably efficient manner, the functions required by both scientific and business applications. o Special purpose computers are computational devices that are designed from scratch for special purposes. E.g., inside washer-machines, cell-phones, elevators, etc. 26
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Computers Classification o A computer or computational device in which the problem variables are represented as continuous, varying physical quantities. An analog computer implements a model of the system being studied. 27 o A digital computer is an electronic computing machine that uses the binary digits (bits) 0 and 1 to represent all forms of information internally in digital form. o Hybrid computers are computers that exhibit features of analog computers and digital computers. Computers can be generally classified by kind as follows:
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Computers Classification Computers can be generally classified by size and data processing speed as follows: o Supercomputer : the most powerful and fastest, very expensive, developed in 1980s, process large amount of data, solve the complicated scientific problems (e.g., Weather forecasting, Nuclear energy research, Aircraft design, Automotive design, Online banking, control industrial units), large number of processors connected parallel, handle thousands of users separately. Tianhe over 2½ quadrillion FLOPs 28
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