Exam 1 - Geography llll Principles of Physical Geography...

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Unformatted text preview: Geography llll Principles of Physical Geography Fall seas nans".- .;+'sr nest snarttnrn SECTION I: TRUE-FALSE T F I . We've talked about two kinds ot'hcat The ltind you can feel on your skin [or measure with a thermometer} is called “sensible heaL’" 2. In some layers ofthe dunes-photo temperature rises with elevation. in others it declines. 3. As we discussed. a computer-based system for analyzing, manipulating. and display-mg spatial information {and making maps} is called an “MMMM” {mediematical map-matting metaphor}. T F 4. Althoung the earth turns l5“ every hour and the earth is divided into R time zones [24 a [5 = seas}. most ofthe standard time zones are not exactly l5 degrees across. ‘Tl‘fi T F 5. The earth's seasons are mostly caused by the varying distance between the earth and the sun. T F ii. As we discussed in class. converting between the Fahrenheit PF} and Celsius (“Ci scales is fairly easy. as long as you remember that every degree in the Celsius scale is “is ofa Fahrenheit degree? and that there is a 32° ditthrenee in their freezing points. T F i". The commonly used geographic grid uses latitude and longitude. The a" line of longitude is known as the “prime meridian," and the ll“ line of latitude is called the "equator." T F S. We call the difference between incoming and outgoing radiation *apheiion radiation." T F 9. As we discussed. although matter cannot be destroyed (only transformed}. when energy is absorbed by a surface it ceases to esisL T F ll}. Halfofthe earth is altars}: illuminated. The dividing line bctttt‘ett day and night is the “circle ofillornination." T F l t- We talked a bit about map projections in class. and although than: are a number of different choices.thereisonlyone‘perfect’mapprojectim—onethatdoesnotcauseanyltindof distortion — and that is the .‘vlereator projection. T F II. The eardt's closest approach to the sun happens every year on [or about} January 4th. SECTION 1: MULTIPLE CHOICE I3. The earth‘s mirfaee reflects some incoming solar radiation. and some is scattered or reflected by the atmosphere. too. About how much of the incoming solar radiation that the earth receives is actually absorbed by the surface? a. Less than 1% . b. About half. c. About Slot/u. d. 100% I4. Some kinds of electromagnetic radiation {like tit-rays or ultraviolet} can damage living things. Odrers [like visible light] are much less harmful. Of the following, what kind of electromagnetic radiation is most. likely to be harmful to living things? a. long-nave. b. Low frequency- e. Shortwave. d. Transient. IS. We talked about four reasons that land heats and cools more quickly than water. Of the feline-ring, which lg NOT one of those [our nations? at. Penetradoo— light peneuams water. so instead ofjusr tryingto heat a surface. it has to heme tit-hole mass ofwatct. b. tutoring — not: circulates and mixes. so instead of just heating one on light has to try to hear an entire volume of water. it. Evaporation — evme cools. and since there is constant evaporation From the surface. water heats less quickly than [and does. d. Thisisatrictrquestion—allthieeoltheabovcarereasonsohylandheatsandeoolsmore quickly than water. re. The “subsolar point” is a. the point in the earth‘s orbit where it is closest to the sun. b. the place on the earth's surface where the sun is directly overhead at noon {the point receiving the greatest incoming solar radiation}. c. the dividing line hettveen the dark and light halves of the earth. d. the shortest line connecting two points on the surface of the earth. 1?. 1What gas makes up T8% of the earth‘s atmosphere? a. Nitrogen h. Oxygen c. Carbon dioxide :1. Chlorine monoxide First Midterm Basic Concepts. Maps, Energy. Temperature. introduction to the Atmosphere Page 1 Geography lt'll Principles of Phys ical Geography Fall Ziillfi 18. Why are we concerned today about ozone depletion? a. Because ozone in the stratosphere is very good at block hamtfnl incoming ultraviolet radiation. b. Because ozone causes global warming. c. Because oaone is a form ofoxygen — we breathe it. and need it to survive. d. Because ozone is important in maintaining coastal climates- l9. 1|t'it-"l'ttll is the "life layer?” it. The earth‘s distance from tlte son {an average of'iIJ million miles or iii} million kilometers}. h. The layer ole-ates [in all its losses] on the surface and in the atmosphere. c. The surface layer of the earth that contains most items oflife. d. The acne between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Ell. What is “insulation?” a. Any substance which reflects more electromagnetic radiation than it receives. b. Anything which presented: transmission ofheat eulogy. c. A form oflongwave radiation. d. Short for incoming flat radiation. It. According to your book. the greatest change [fluctuation] in temperature during the year taltes place a. over the tropical oceans- b. in the subarctic and arctic regions of North America and Asia- e. at low elevations along continental west coasts. d. in low-latitude rainforcsts. 23. According to your boat-t. at high elevations [as in the Peru example}: a. the greenhouse effect is increased. it. incoming solar radiation is less intense than at sea level. c. air density is greater than at sea level. d. letttperttturcs rise quickly during the day 11nd fall rapidly at night. 23. As we discussed in class. there are different types of energy. In class we used the “burning car“ analogy. When the fool in the car*s gas lflT'li-l horns. what form of energy are we looking at? a. kinetic h. potential c. mechanical d. chemical 2-1. What is the earth‘s "albedo?" a. "the ability of plants to expel water through their leaves. thereby cooling the air around them. b. The carlltis average sorthcc reflection — the earth reflects about ill} of the incoming solar radiation. c. The differential response of land and enter to temperature changes. d- The process in which water changes directly from a gas to a solid- 35. Your hoot; tailts ahout two kinds of geography. One focuses on places- the other on ms. The kind that looks at planes called "regional geography.“ The otherltind is called geography. a. *logical" b. "11 canon“ c. ‘deteoninistic” d. "systematic" 26- Because energy either haste betaloen in or given offtochangc natcrfiom one state to another. the energy can be “hidden.” We call this “hidden energy“ a. Latent heat. b. Dormant warmth. c. Sensible heat. d. Prudent force. 1?. Althoufi there is still some controversy ahotn global warming- sortie predictions about futon: climate can be made. Which of the following [5 NflT among the prodictiorm discussed in your book? a. Glaciers in many arm of the world may melL b. Sea levels may c. Average touperatures in the equatorial and tropical regions will heat much faster and change much more than in northern midiatitude regions. d. C03 buildup will continue for perhaps another hundred years. Eli. Which layer of the amrosphere is directly ahOve the troposphere? a. Enospltere. h. Stratosphere. c. Thermosphere. d. Mesospltere. 29. As I mentioned. one aspect of map scale that you have to be careful about is the difference between “large scale" and “small scale.“ Lfyou had a map which showed a detailed section of downtown San Diego. including streets, alleys and houses- and it was labeled " l :24.llfltl.“ what would the scale ofthls map probably be [CHDDSE EITHER "A" Elli "3"]? a. Small scale. because it shows a small area. and it has a small fractional scale. b. Large scale, because it shows lots ofdetail. and it has a large fractional scale. First Midterm Basic Concepts. Maps. Energy. Temperature. introduction to the Atmosphere Page 3 lIiieogratplty it'll Principles of Physical Geography Fall I 3D. Up to a height of about 9 miles {11 kilometers} temperature declines with elesation at a rate of 6.4 per Lotto meters {El-I 3.5“ F per [.000 feet}. This decline in miniature is called a. tropopause velocity. h. isothermal rehountl. c. the heat index effect. d. the environmental temperature lapse rate. Ell. Yourbookmadeapohfiofnofingthatdmmamsmmlseasonaltempemurepanentswecanseen ntap of trorld tempetahtres. Which of the following is 935 of these patterns your book noted? a. There is tremendous seasonal change Itch-rem winter and summer in the tropics. h. Seasonal changes over the oceans are always greater than over the land at the same latitude. c. Areas ofperpetual ice are always cold. :1. Highland areas are always aerator than stntonnding loo-lands. 32. Where have the effects of the ‘hole” in the ozone layer been most noticeable {and most dangerous! a. North Africa. h. Antarctica. c. in the tropics. d. At the equator. 33. As we discussed in class. there are several differ-cot ways of expressing map scale. What. kind of a scale is this? n I 2 g D 29 3“ scale in kilometers a. Bar {grapltic‘tsoale b. Unwritten scale. c. Fractional scale. d. lr'erbal scale. 34. What is ‘Rmperatutei" a. r‘l. measure of how fast the atoms or molecules in a substance are ribs-ailing. h. A roeasure ofsensfiale heat. e. A Measure of tltc average ltinetic energy of the atoms or molecules in a substance- d. This is a trio]: onestiott: all of the above are 1raliri trays of defining temperature. 35. Where is the “Tropic of Cancer” located? a. 32%“ North. b. 23'}? South. c. 1355" North. d. This is a triclr question; the location of tlte Tropic of Cancer varies during the year. 3d. Air temperatures within a city are often several degrees manner than surrounding rural or suburban areas. This phenommnn is known as a. the transpiration lapse rate- h. the temperature lapse rate. c. a ‘1emperature inversion." d. a “heat island.“ 3?. Carbon dioxide {€03} is an important issue in global earning prhnatily hocattse of its a. tendency to form ozone-destroying compounds in the troposphere. h. ability to absorb and re-radiate heat energy. it. ability to reflect solar energy. and cool the earth. d. transparency to all forms of electromagnetic radiation. 31:“ discussed inyoor book. ‘artist is ‘transpiration"? a. A natural activity of plants: water is taken up by the roots and carried to the leaves. where it evaporates. h. About l.4fl{l watts per square meter- c. The lack ofchangc in temperature over tropical oceans during the year. d. A process in which ice is contorted directly to a gas {water vapor}, 1without first melting, 39. Where is the “international date line“ located? a. Eenuecn 23 is“ Soudt and 23%" North. b. On {or about} June 21" it is located at the North Pole; on December 22”, it is at the South Pole. s. lathePacificOceamu lWEastorWestnfiit zig-aags aroundeastern Rumiaandsorne islands}. 11. The location 1varies depending on the map projection used. Ill]. The June solstice is the longest day ofthc year in the Northern hemisphere. The longest day ofthc year in the Southern hemisphere is the a. September solstice. h. .lune equinox. e. March equinox. d. September equinox. First Hatter-m Basie Corachs, Maps. Energy. Temperature. introduction to the hunocphere Page 3 Geography l0] Principles of Physical Geography Fall 2005 4 | . Which one of the following statements about the different layers in the atmosphtfl't: is E? a. The “thennosphere” is the same as the *hornospbere." 1:. Each lay-crofthe amber:- is My lDDltt'nlfirl} milesl thick. c. Gmttt: is prirrrariiy concentrated in the “l'tetEl'D‘Spl'I-ttl'c." d. We live in the bottom layer oftl'te arroospiterc -- the '“tropospl'aere.” 42. "this is a simplified US weather map sit-owing lines connecting points of equal temperature. “hat is the general term we use for this kind of map symbol? a. Equal—interval eoniles. It. Profile correlations. e. lsoiines [or “isopleths'}. d. Tangentiais. 43. When we discussed the issue of global warming. we tall-red about scrotal factors that affect climate. Dl'the Following, 1which is one that people do not al'l'oot'? a. Production of greenhouse gHsSes. Lt. Solar variations {variations in the sun‘s energy output} c. Production of aerosols [small particles}. :1. Land coy-er changes. do. Your book dened seven latitude zones. ltoiri you not to worry about memorizing them. but ldid say you should know that the receives the greatest average annual quantity arson: Margy. a. Midlat‘itudcs. b. Equatorial tone. it Huh-tropics. d. Tropic; 45. When nutter changes from one state to another energy either has to be taken in from the erwironrrteut or released into the environment. ‘Wlaert water vapor n'amralu [when it goes from a liquid to a gas} heat is a- destnayed. creating a closed energy loop sysrctn. b. transformed into potential enerfi. it. released. naming the environment d. absorbed {taken in}. cooling the ent'ironmettL 46. Which ofthe following is imm. ihle usng standard latitude and longitude? a. n longitude of 3°W. it. ill longitude of [35“E. e. A latitude of SE“ S. d. A latitude of3li°N. 4?. According to your book. the amount ofencrgy any place on the earth receives from the sun is determined by two factors: the length of the day; and the angle at which sun's rays strike the surface. Both ol’ these factors are dotennittcd by one thing: a. longitude. h. eley'ation- c. latitude. d. countenadiation. 43. All ol‘ the following may be importanL but as we discussed in class. what is the m crucial step in the scientific mefltod‘.’ a. Publication. b. Initial observation. c. Testingiprediction. d. Grant inciting. 49. The daily cycle of air temperature doesn‘t esottly follow the daily cycle of insulation. Why not? a. Boer-um net radiation during both day and night is positive in the nerthent hemisphere, but negative in the southern hemisphere. it. Because the earth's distance from the sun titties during the courts: ofthe year. c. For I'd-fl reasons: first. the time it takes for the surface to hemupdurirtg the day {hglimc}. and scooud. because of atmospheric mixing, at. This is a nick question: air temperature always follows the daily cycle of irrsolation. in. When temperature doesn‘t decline with elevation. the condition is called a a. “tamperarrue inversion.“ b. “warmth recursion.“ c. “normal gradient-" d. “invarse actiomreueiion gradient” HARE}. First Midterm Basic Concepts. Maps. Energv. 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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2008 for the course GEOG 101 taught by Professor Osborn during the Fall '05 term at San Diego State.

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Exam 1 - Geography llll Principles of Physical Geography...

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