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Final Study Guide - trfi Antiu'o Final epidemiolng}r —...

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Unformatted text preview: trfi Antiu'o Final epidemiolng}r — stud],r of patterns, causes, and control of disease in groups vector — agents that serve to transmit disease from one carrier to another; mos‘quitoes are vectors for malaria as fleas are vectors for bubonic piague aoonose -.a disease that is transmitted to humans Ii'irough contact With non—human animals. disease spread by animalsfrahies [west nile} pandemic — diseasa spread over wide geographic location {bubonic plague) epidemic — rapid spreading1 pravaient disease (annual influenza} inl'eittious diseases— caused by microorganism such as: I} bacteria — treated with antibiotic 2] virus - treated with anti-viral medication [tarniflu] 3'] fungus — antilimgal medication 4‘} parasite— treated with various medications to kill the organism 'l'op ID infectious canscsof death {1998} l] influenza — 3.? million deaths — killed 413 million worldwide; caused by virus; dearth due to secondary infectioni'pnenmonia 2.] tuberculosis H 2.? million deaths 3) cholera — 2.5 million deaths 4) aids— 2.3 miilion deaths 5] malaria — 1.5 —2.'i' million non-infections diseases: — caused by genetic. or environmental influences — can be linked to: .dietfnnttition, work, pollutionfcontamination, technology,r communicahlefnon—eommunicohie — eontagiousfnon—eontagioun Olduwan tool tradition - oldest:II stone tool ['ex. core chopper} u earliest rteogniwd; unison by Hominids - “pebble indushy‘T’ehop-per industry" - Ethiopia 2.5 mya — Made. ofhasalt and chart — Simple but not vow simple Aeheulinn tool tradition - characterized by increasingly ‘-‘ae5'fl1etie toole“ — more controlled flaking ~ identified by the presence of ahand axe [hi face} + Homo eroetos 1.5 myn ~ Much more'eornplex than Didowan {cont} - to East Asia - Named alter site of St. Aeheul in France [firat dimmer-ed) — Hand axes are prominent Moustefiw'] too] tradition - middlestone age {MSA} in Africa - middle Paieolithie in Europe ~ use-:1 by Neandertals in Europe anti their eontomporm‘ien in Africa , compose-d ofsrnall flake tool's made with Levalloio technique - increasingly eeethetie - specialized fer specific Lees - Sflflsflflt} — Wilflfl years age — Acheulien still present — Named alter Le Manatee-shelter site in SW France- Levallnie technique — precese cf etcne teal manufacute where a prepaIed cure is need fletccdentcke’rnetic tccle - made cfhenes, entiers; and teeLh [Jul efAIrica — Adam: [Simflfl years age; Ychrcmascme. - Eve: 125,flfl'fl years age”; mitechcndrial DNA. - use m‘itcchcndria] DNA {£1111}; in mnr‘ne} tn seek nut Real Jive — Leeks} at origins efhumans; Says we came cut 01" Africa and ccrnplctcly rcplaece peplflaficns in Asia anti Emcpe Complete replacement — heeed'cn engin'ef humans - lie breeding between Aliicans and nen-Afiieans Mtfltiifegicna] medci — leeks at: gene flew. paraliei evolution between-spawns — stat with a specics that Intwed cut, began breeding betweec'n penulatienefliet migratetc each ether, causing ei'rnlutien [cut-ugh gene flow} Radian: theory — explains hcw brain inc'reaeed in size - eerreiates increasingly enmplex erania] qith the need fer heat dissipatien in early Heminds, espeeially these elaseified as heme Grewth and develeprnent — develnprnent embryeiegieal differentiatien efergans and tissue: earliest stages ef grewth — interstitial grewfli: grewth hy newr eell fermatien - 'appesitlenal grewfli: growth by adding layer at speeifie paint er plane 1} PrenalahiEmhntenie — eeneeptien tei birth: [40 weeks in lurrnans) — rapid grewrh — differentiatien el'earines tissues 2} infancy — earliest stage ef'pestpartum grewth - birth te time ef weaning u eerapleteiy dependant en mether 3) Childheed - grewth irem weaning te attainment ef adult size brain — is alse part efjnvenile stage — unique in htnnans 4) Juvenile - grewth frem the eruptien efthe first in last permanent teeth - early part ef adeleseenee 5:. Adeleeeenee - begins wifla unset ol‘pubmy - aids with almimnmlol'full adult summa- - agcvmiedgmflyduinsflwpfl - Manuafinnin rm (My ~ m age; L15 - followed by 1-3 years ufmhfiacmldity -pelvisatt3insaduhsizcatage IT-lfl - Pandas mach adult reproductive matmity helm 2&24 yum-s - miscarriage and low birth rams mm in fumigcr mums -Matuxafiun in Mains: - Palm's? ~ early firming] fluids contain spen'n - no! fulty fecumd 311115 time - median for sperm punctuation is 13.5 - usually 23mm bdfind funnies - peak WWW 6] Adam . fium inlet-113m off-Hum mull until HI:- - longest [item in prism 7"} 011d fist -P°fi-rqmdmfifln{mupmfll -mt= ul‘cefldflalh ngthaII mplaucnmnl cranial flaunts supra orbital torus: brow rifles — male homo sapiens still exhibit this feature to a lesser extent sagittai crest: caused by chewing muscles found in robust Australopitheciocs sagittai keel: slight keeIing ol' the parietal bones — found in homo erectus {bump on top} recoding symphysis: absence of chin — onlyr homo sapiens do not havefltis feature iio. modern humans post—orbital constriction: pinching in of the Irontal portion of the skull — decrease corresponds with an increase in brain sin: cranial fault: forehead or lack thereof; increase in later hominid-species pneumatic flaring: flaring. of occipital region — early Australopifitecines ”occipital bun: found in homo neanderthalensis: helps to balance the head counterweight to heave facial bones; heel; of the head endocast: impression of the intereior of the cranitun: this can show Features of the vascttiar system of the brain fiat face: indentation ofrnidiportion of cranium mid-face prognathism: jutting out of'mid-p'ct'tion of tile face prominentzygontatic arches: large cheek bones AIDS article: 1933 discovery of l-H‘u'fi the pathogen responsible for aids similar SW found in Asian monkeys I} Tainted Polio vaccine (most controversial} - *t'ern Curtis-— HWE eeuld have resulted Frern the use ef an experimental era} peIin vaccine {OPEL contaminated with the then unknown SW carried by Ali'iean Green Monkeys - IQST-IWU indem'eeratie repuhIie efthe eenge 2) Cut Hunter [main eempeting thirery) — SIVE is OECflSiBflEllY transmitted to hunters.via bleed—te—bleed contest with infected primates 3} Contaminated Needles — Prealen A- Marx IQQS. virulegigt — 195fl'52 werldwide inlmduetten et'dispu‘eahle'plaetie syringes 4]: Heart et'Darknesus — King IJeepeld’e Ghent and Jeaeph Cenrad's flnfleflgflg — To «date fer the health of Iabnrer's in tuber camper re—emd needles: and prestitutert ...
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