Astropolitics_K_UM7wk - 1NC Shell The Affs vision of space as a realm to be controlled results in an extension of violence and militaristic

Astropolitics_K_UM7wk - 1NC Shell The Affs vision of space...

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1NC ShellThe Aff’s vision of space as a realm to be controlled results in an extension of violence and militaristic domination—This turns the aff by encouraging the very anti-democratic wars they hope to prevent[Note—this is a space control link—insert specific links if its not relevant]MacDonald 07, Fraser MacDonald, Professor of Anthropology, Geography, and Environmental Studies at Melbourne University in Australia, “Anti-Astropolitik – outer space and the orbit of geography,” Progress in Human Geography, 2007, Pages 592-615.Two things should now be clear. First, outer space is no longer remote from our everyday lives; it is already profoundly implicated in the ordinary workings of economy and society.Second, the import of space to civilian, commercial and, in particular, military objectives, means there is a great deal at stake in terms of the access to and control over Earth’s orbit. One cannot overstate this last point. The next few years may prove decisive in terms of establishing a regime of space control that will have profound implications for terrestrial geopolitics. It is in this context that I want to briefly introduce the emerging field of astropolitics, defined as ‘the study of the relationship between outer space terrain and technology and the development of political and military policy and strategy’(Dolman, 2002: 15). It is, in both theory and practice, a geopolitics of outer space. Everett Dolman is one of the pioneers of the field. An ex-CIA intelligence analyst who teaches at the US Air Force’s School of Advanced Airpower Fraser MacDonald: Anti-Astropolitik outer space and the orbit of geography 607 Studies , he publishes in journals that are perhaps unfamiliar to critical geographers, like the modestly titled Small Wars and Insurgencies. As what follows is uniformly critical of Dolman’s work, I should say that his Astropolitik: classical geopolitics in the space age(Dolman, 2002) is unquestionably a significant book: it hasdefined a now vibrant field of research and debate. Astropolitik draws together a vast literature on space exploration and space policy, and presents a lucid and accessible introduction to thinking strategically about space.(In the previous section I drew heavily on Dolman’s description of the astropolitical environment.) My critique is not founded on scientific or technical grounds but on Dolman’s construction of a formal geopolitics designed to advance and legitimate the unilateral military conquest of space by the United States. While Dolman has many admirers among neoconservative colleagues in Washington think-tanks, critical engagements (eg, Moore, 2003; Caracciolo, 2004) have been relatively thin on the ground. Dolman’s work is interesting for our purposes here precisely because he draw’s on geography’s back catalogue of strategic thinkers, most prominently Halford Mackinder, whose ideas gained particular prominence in America in thewake of the Russian Sputnik (Hooson, 2004: 377). But Dolman is not just
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