Marginocephalians 1- the Pachycephalosaurs

Marginocephalians 1- the Pachycephalosaurs -...

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Relationships Ornithischians- the bird-hipped dinosaurs Genosaurs- the cheeked ornithischians Cerapodans- genosaurs with a diastema and 5 or fewer premaxillay teeth Marginocephalians- The sister group . of the pachycephalosaurs within the marginocephalians is the ceratopsians, which we will discuss in next lecture Sister group means most closely related group
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Marginocephalians are a monophyletic group united by sharing these characters: Narrow shelf over back of skull formed by parietal and squamosal bones Reduced premaxillary contribution to palate Shortened pubis Wide-spaced hips Fig. 13.2, from Martin (2005) An Introduction to the Study of Dinosaurs
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Cladogram of relationships Fig. II.3
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General information Known only from northern hemisphere continents (i.e. North America and Eurasia) Earliest members are found in central or east Asia, suggesting that this is where they evolved Temporally, they are restricted to the Early- Late Cretaceous Period Fig. 2.9 modified
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General: Long hind limbs and very short front limbs, short neck, long trunk, long tail, enlarged ribs and transverse processes of tail vertebrae Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis http://www.gate.net/~mcorriss/DP4a.JPG
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Thick, flattened or dome-shaped skull
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General Smallest species, Micropachycephalosaurus, measured >1 m (> 3 feet) long, whereas Pachycephalosaurus measured 8 m (~25 feet) long Thus, they were small to medium-sized dinosaurs http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=8050&rendTypeId=4
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Marginocephalians 1- the Pachycephalosaurs -...

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