moderneurofinal - MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY FINAL EXAM Andrew...

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MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY FINAL EXAM Andrew Sobler
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1) Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, refers to Germany in the years of 1933 to 1945, when it was governed by the Nazi Party, and headed by Adolf Hitler as chancellor. Their foreign policy was based on the idea of Lebensraum, or “living space”. They believed that the addition of all Germanic peoples into one country was an important step towards their national success. Non-Germans were strongly opposed to this idea, and believed that a very large and powerful Germany would be to the ultimate disadvantage to the rest of Europe. No matter what one’s position was on the issue, it was the Nazis’ infatuation with the Volk concept that ultimately led to Germany’s expansion. Two important concepts were the administration of the Polish corridor and the Danzig’s incorporation into the Third Reich. As an even further extension of racial policy, the Lebensraum program adapted in the midst of the war pertained to similar interests. It was then decided that Eastern Europe would be inhabited with ethnic Germans, and the Slavics who met the Nazi racial standard would then be consolidated into the Third Reich also. Racialism was a vital aspect of German society. They also mixed anti-Semitism with an anti-Communist ideology and believed the leftist movement was the work of the Jews. This later evolved into the Holocaust. Nazi attacks on the Jewish population in 1933 was the first step in removing them from German society. By summer of that year, the process was on its way to becoming quite massive and destructive. It also was the center of Hitler’s “cultural revolution”, in which the Nazi mindset had begun to evolve to include anti-Semitism, anti-communism, and anti-liberalism. As a direct result of this, the German personality began to assume a much more masculine spirit, at which all attempts at “artistic expression” and “sexual freedom” were shunned. The total exclusion of Jews from the economy, the media, and state employment was essential to the “process of
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redeeming and purifying the German race”. This new government of Germany also took on a totalitarian dictatorship in a series of quick succession. The Enabling Act was passed in March 1933, with 444 votes, to the 94 of the Social Democrats. This act also gave the government, more so the Nazi party, legislative powers and also authorized it to deviate from the provisions of the constitution for 4 years. Hitler was now able to create the Nazi dictatorship in Germany, and abolish remaining opposition and turned the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich. By June 1937, it became very easy to make the Nazi dictatorship into a one party state, the Social Democrats had been banned, along with the Communists, German Nationalists, German People’s Party and German Democratic Party. Only the army had remained independent from the Nazi-controlled government. They had traditionally been separate from the government anyway. Wanting to preserve a
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moderneurofinal - MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY FINAL EXAM Andrew...

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