for exam 3 - MACROEVOLUTION 11/13/2007 9:11:00 PM Taxonomy...

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MACROEVOLUTION 13/11/2007 21:11:00 Taxonomy and Phylogeny     TAXONOMY: the science or classifying or naming organisms in a hierarchical  manner PHYLOGENY: a reconstruction of an evolutionary branching sequence Why study it? systematic, standardized classification evolutionary relationships trends in evolution How do we study it? MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES     HYBRIDIZATION strands of DNA- separated with high heat isolated strands are exposed to strands of known species degree to which strands form bonds between nucleotide bases  indicated relationship SEQUENCING a protein or gene fragment is extracted  from test organism the protein/gene fragment is sequenced into amino acids/  nucleodide bases
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the degree to which species share similar sequences indicated  relationship IMMUNOLOGICAL compare a reation of a know antigen-antibody system Antigen: “against genetics”- usually a protein or  carbohydrate substance (a toxin or an enzyme) capable  of stimulating an immune response immune response: a bodily response to an antigen that  occurs when lymphocytes identify the antigenetic  molecule as a foreign and induce the formation of  antibodies and lymphocytes (white blood cells) capable  of reacting to it and rendering it harmless antibody: produced after stimulation by an antigen and  specifically acts against the antigen in an immune  response compare reaction with the reaction of alternate species’  antigens MORPHOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES    
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morphology: a branch of biology that deals with the form and structure  of animals and plants; the form and structure of an organism or any of  its parts similarities and differences of morphological traits homologous vs. analygous traits homology: traits that are similar due to evolutionary  decent from a common ancestor EX> bats have similar bone structure that was  inherited from a common ancestor analogy: a trait similar because of a common adaptation EX> both birds/ bats and butterflies have wings-  why? they fly Types of Evolution     Divergent Convergent
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Parallel Plesiomorphy and Symplesiomorphy plesiomorphy: “ancestral trait” symplesiomorphy: “shared/similar primate trait” Apomorphy and Synamorphy apomorphy: a novel, derived trait (new) synamorphy: a shared derived trait Phenetics: classification based on overall similarities Traditional systematics: classification based on weighted traits Cladastics/ phylogenetic systematics: classification based on synomorphies- what is  new/ shared (novel derived trait) HUMAN TAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION
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for exam 3 - MACROEVOLUTION 11/13/2007 9:11:00 PM Taxonomy...

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